The Ultimate Guide to

4-AcO-DMT

(4-Acetoxy-DMT, 4-AcO, Psilacetin, O-Acetylpsilocin, Synthetic shrooms)

The Essential Guide to 4-AcO-DMT

4-Acetoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine

C14H18N2O2

Disclaimer: 4-AcO-DMT is an illegal substance in many countries, and we do not encourage or condone the use of this substance where it is against the law. However, we accept that illegal drug use occurs and believe that offering responsible harm reduction information is imperative to keeping people safe. For that reason, this guide is designed to ensure the safety of those who decide to use 4-AcO-DMT.

Overview

01

4-AcO-DMT (or psilacetin) is a semi-synthetic tryptamine closely related to the “magic mushroom” molecules psilocin and psilocybin. Like psilocybin, it appears to be metabolized by the body into psilocin.

Most people buy psilacetin as a brown or off-white powder that can be mixed with water just prior to dosing. But it’s also available in pills, tablets, capsules, and gel tabs among other preparations.

While some find the effects indistinguishable from psilocybin mushrooms, others say it’s more like DMT. The difference may be dose-dependent. But mystical-type experiences are common, as are philosophical insights and a sense of empathic well-being.

History & Stats

02

Brief history

4-AcO-DMT was first synthesized by Albert Hofmann (who discovered LSD) and his colleague Franz Troxler at Sandoz laboratories in Switzerland. It was patented by the company, along with a number of other indole esters, in 1963.[1] But it wasn’t until the 1990s that we first saw 4-AcO-DMT for sale alongside various “research chemicals” and “designer drugs.”[2]

Current use

Nowadays, 4-AcO-DMT is the most popular of the synthetic/semi-synthetic tryptamines—although the use of these substances remains limited.[2][3] For instance, while only 81  (3.55%) of the 2,282 US respondents to the 2013 Global Drug Survey reported ever having tried 4-AcO-DMT, substantially fewer people had ever tried 4-HO-DiPT (22 or 0.96%), 4-HO-MiPT (20 or 0.88%), or even the relatively well known 5-MeO-DMT (72 or 3.16%).[4] The 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, meanwhile, found that of 56,276 respondents, only three (0.01%) had ever used 4-AcO-DMT.[5]

Despite these limited numbers, the use of tryptamines in general (natural and synthetic) appears to have increased over the past couple of decades. According to the DEA, the estimated number of tryptamine reports to state and local laboratories in 2006 was just 42, whereas in 2010 it was 474.[2]

Worldwide interest in 4-AcO-DMT apparently peaked in September 2010, having been gradually climbing over the previous few years. It reached an all-time high in July 2012 and interest appears to have declined since then. Of course, this graph only charts interest by Google web search, so this apparently “declining interest” might just reflect a shifting of sales to the darknet—or of queries to other websites such as Reddit.

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Pharmacology

03

4-AcO-DMT, like psilocybin (4-PO-DMT), is an ester of psilocin (4-HO-DMT). Whereas psilocybin is the O-phosphorylated form, naturally occurring in “magic mushrooms,” 4-AcO-DMT is the O-acetylated form, hence the name O-Acetylpsilocin.[6][7] In other words, 4-AcO-DMT has the same basic structure as both psilocin and psilocybin, but with an acetoxy group bonded to its indole ring.

Receptor binding

Very little data exist on the receptor binding and metabolism of 4-AcO-DMT. Like psilocybin, it’s thought to be a prodrug of psilocin—in this case deacetylated to psilocin during first-pass metabolism by the stomach and liver.[3][6][7] On that basis, we can safely assume that 4-AcO-DMT has roughly the same mechanism of action—primarily activating (like many other psychedelics) the 5-HT2A serotonin receptors.

But some think it may be more than just a prodrug of psilocin. Anecdotal reports of near-immediate psychoactivity when injected or smoked (i.e. when bypassing first-pass metabolism) suggest it may have its own pharmacodynamic profile.[8] This could also account for some of the perceived differences between psilocybin and 4-AcO-DMT when taken orally. That said, it’s worth noting that naturally occurring psilocybin tends to be accompanied in mushrooms by other alkaloids with presumed effects of their own, such as baeocystin and norbaeocystin[9][10][11]—neither of which are present in 4-AcO-DMT powders.

Safety and toxicity

Because of the pharmacological similarities, 4-AcO-DMT is assumed to be just as safe and non-addictive as psilocybin/psilocin. Although clinical research is lacking—especially into its long-term effects and toxic overdose (if any)—it appears to be safe anecdotally. A number of 4-AcO-DMT trip reports link very high doses to blackouts, vomiting, heart problems, hypertension, and seizures,[12][13][14][15][16] but not fatalities—at least in the absence of other drugs.

Lithium, tramadol, stimulants (e.g. amphetamines, cocaine), and cannabis have each been linked to psychosis or seizures when combined with psychedelics.[7][17][18] As with any substance, you should avoid taking 4-AcO-DMT, or at least do so cautiously, if you’re prone to psychosis, seizures, heart problems, blood pressure problems, or mental health issues such as severe anxiety. This list is not meant to be comprehensive, though; always do your own research before taking any unfamiliar substance.

Effects

04

Dosage

4-AcO-DMT is usually sold as a fumarate salt (4-AcO-DMT fumarate) containing on average 1 mg pure 4-AcO-DMT for every 1.24 mg of the powder.[19][20] If it’s a hydrochloride salt (4-AcO-DMT HCl), it will contain on average 1 mg pure 4-AcO-DMT for every 1.15 mg of the powder.[20] In practice the difference may be negligible, but it’s worth knowing. Given the prevalence of 4-AcO-DMT fumarate—and that it contains less of the active indole alkaloid—it’s safe to assume dosage guidelines found online pertain to the fumarate salt.

As a powder, 4-AcO-DMT is usually taken orally, but it can also be taken intranasally (snorted/insufflated). For other methods see FAQ. Either way, it’s processed more rapidly by the body than psilocybin mushrooms, typically resulting in a faster, more intense onset.

Even high-end doses are tiny, as with DMT, so you’ll need a digital milligram scale to weigh out your desired amount, based on the following ranges:

Oral 4-AcO-DMT dosage (effects: mg)

[7][21][22]

  • Threshold: 2.5 – 5
  • Light: 5 – 10
  • Common: 10 – 25
  • Strong: 25 – 40
  • Heavy: 40+

Intranasal 4-AcO-DMT dosage (effects: mg)

[7][21]

  • Threshold: <5
  • Light: 5 – 10
  • Common: 10 – 20
  • Strong: 20 – 30
  • Heavy: 30+

What to expect

The duration and timeline of effects will depend on a number of factors—like whether you’ve eaten beforehand—but they should fall within the following ranges:

Oral

[7][22][23]

  • Onset: 10 – 45 min
  • Come-up: 30 min – 2 hr
  • Plateau/peak: 2 – 3 hr
  • Come-down: 1 – 2 hr
  • Total duration: 3 – 8 hr

Insufflated

[7][23]

  • Onset: 5 – 25 min
  • Come-up: 30 – 60 min
  • Plateau/peak: 1 – 3 hr
  • Come-down: 45 min – 1.5 hr
  • Total duration: 2 – 6 hr

Immediate after-effects (such as an afterglow) may last up to 48 hours.[7][22][23]

While some consider the effects of 4-AcO-DMT identical to those of psilocybin mushrooms, others point out the differences. They may find it mellower and more euphoric than mushrooms, for instance, or they may liken it to DMT—especially at high doses—for its vivid visionary effects.[23][24][25][7]

You’re unlikely to experience all of the effects listed below, but they’ll give you some idea of what to expect:[7][22][23][26][27]

Positive

  • Euphoria, laughter
  • Mental/physical stimulation, e.g. a pleasant “buzz”
  • Enhanced vision, e.g. brighter colors
  • Enhanced appreciation for music/images/film, etc.
  • Enjoyment of otherwise mundane tasks
  • Enhanced creativity or flow of ideas
  • Increased empathy
  • Introspective insights
  • Philosophical thoughts
  • Mystical/spiritual experience
  • Feelings of wonder
  • Inner peace or a sense of rapture

Neutral

  • Sensitivity to light (pupil dilation)
  • Open/closed-eye visuals, e.g. geometric patterns
  • Synesthesia
  • Enhanced peripheral vision, e.g. motion detection
  • Sound distortion/auditory hallucinations
  • Compulsive yawning
  • Sedation or stimulation
  • Increased or decreased emotional sensitivity
  • Time distortion
  • Temporary amnesia
  • Softening or loss of ego

Negative

  • Over-stimulation, e.g. significantly increased heart rate
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Sweating/chills/flushing
  • Muscle fatigue/aching
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion/fear/anxiety
  • Difficulty verbalizing thoughts
  • Disturbing visions
  • Overwhelming ideas
  • Paranoia

It’s fairly common to perceive an “additional layer” to reality, sometimes manifesting as an “energy field” around objects. Changes in perception of gravity or bodily sensations are also commonly reported. In addition to visual patterns, some people experience “external” hallucinations of seemingly autonomous entities. At high-end doses, “ego-death” is commonly reported, and many self-experimenters temporarily forget their own names.[43][46][7][28]

Precautions

As ever, it’s wise to start with a small dose and work your way up through subsequent trips.[22] The importance of accurate measurements cannot be overstated. As one psychonaut put it, “it’s easy to accidentally swallow what would be equivalent to a trash bag of shrooms.”[29]

All the usual precautions regarding set and setting apply, and obviously you should avoid driving. Having a sober sitter present may be useful.

It’s also a good idea to avoid eating for at least a couple of hours beforehand. Although nausea tends to be less common than with psilocybin mushrooms (perhaps because of the indigestible chitin they contain),[22] upset stomachs are are common during the onset of 4-AcO-DMT.[30][31] The taste of the powder itself can be unpleasant enough to cause nausea or vomiting, though, so you may want to chase it down with juice.

Myths

05

“4-AcO-DMT is a dodgy research chemical”

Some people avoid 4-AcO-DMT in the mistaken belief that it’s just another dodgy “research chemical,” a drug hastily designed as a legal-by-default stand-in for a safer but prohibited substance—in this case psilocybin.[32][33] This assumption places 4-AcO-DMT in the same shady category as the NBOMe series and other research chemicals linked to numerous deaths.[34][35][36]

However, 4-AcO-DMT was not originally designed to circumvent the law. Although it may have become popular in response to the banning of psilocybin mushrooms, it was originally patented in 1963—five years before psilocybin was banned in the US.[37]

And while 4-AcO-DMT hasn’t been clinically tested on humans, fatalities appear to be non-existent and health issues are uncommon. Given its close structural similarities to psilocybin and psilocin, it’s unlikely to be physically dangerous for most people.

“4-AcO-DMT is a legal substitute for magic mushrooms”

Obviously the legality of 4-AcO-DMT will depend on where you live. However, you may be in for a surprise if you expect it to be just like psilocybin. Although many find it comparable, it’s often described as being more like DMT.[38]

Another problem with the statement above is that, for many people, “legal” tends to imply “weak” or “ineffective.” This can make new trippers complacent when it comes to measuring doses. And since all it takes with 4-AcO-DMT is a few extra milligrams to profoundly alter the effects, this misconception could be especially problematic.

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Therapeutic Use

06

As a more stable prodrug of psilocin than psilocybin, and one that’s more easily synthesized, 4-AcO-DMT may be useful for clinical research.[39] It was used, for example, to test the hypothesis that 5-HT2A agonists can alleviate withdrawal symptoms and even prevent addictions from forming. Opiate-dependent rodents given 4-AcO-DMT were effectively cured of their addiction. And a single dose of 4-AcO-DMT given prior to chronic nicotine exposure blocked their transition to a nicotine-dependent state. How 4-AcO-DMT may be used to treat addiction in humans remains to be seen, but these results support neurobiological theories of dependence—and in particular the hypothesis that serotonergic agents can be used to regulate underlying mechanisms involving GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptors and BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) in the ventral tegmental area of the brain.[40]

The authors of this study also suggested that 4-AcO-DMT might be useful for the treatment of depression via the same pathway and the regulation of “aberrant glutamatergic activity.” In fact, 5-HT2A agonists could offer substantially longer-lasting relief than drugs regulating glutamatergic activity via different pathways, such as the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) antagonist ketamine.[40]

Anecdotal reports appear to lend further support. Whereas prescribed antidepressants can have a “numbing” effect, for instance, 4-AcO-DMT is said to help resolve underlying “emotional damage.” One man was able to overcome his PTSD through just six trips, describing the compound as “life-changing” and likening his experiences with it to “unknotting scar tissue” and rediscovering his “inner confident self.” Another self-medicator, a victim of childhood abuse, said she was able to work through her trauma with 4-AcO-DMT and move on with her life in a way that prescribed medications actively seemed to prevent.[41] And yet another, frustrated with conventional antidepressants, credited 4-AcO-DMT with allowing him to “experience happiness and connection,” while also decreasing his reliance on alcohol.[42]

Even microdoses of 4-AcO-DMT appear beneficial. Depressed or anxious individuals report a mood lift and emotional stability that lasts for days. Some have also used it to wean off dangerous and addictive pharmaceuticals.

Personal Growth

07

Among the most common effects of 4-AcO-DMT are spiritual or mystical experiences and compassion for the people in one’s life.[7][43] Openness with family is a recurring theme. One person found the softening of his ego allowed him to have a long-overdue conversation with his brother about their mother’s death, finally telling him things that he “should have said much earlier.” He was also able to reconnect and “productively engage” with his father.[44] Another felt similarly empowered, coming to understand the “problematic tension” between himself and his father and resolving “to mend [their] fractured state.”[45]

Gratitude, acceptance, trust, and letting go are some other common themes. As one psychonaut put it, “whereas mushrooms operate in a part of the brain that could be considered about language or intellect, 4-AcO-DMT acts on the emotional thought processes.” By taking 4-AcO-DMT once every couple of months, he said, he was better able to manage his “warped” emotions.[42]

It could also facilitate positive lifestyle changes. One self-experimenter, for example (following a lengthy discussion with a surprisingly real-looking lion he took to be God), decided to stop smoking weed every day and fulfill his untapped potential.[47]

Microdosing 4-AcO-DMT appears to help in this area too, while at the same time enhancing mental clarity, creativity, and flow.

Legality

08

4-AcO-DMT legality can be ambiguous. Although it’s federally unscheduled in the US, for instance, manufacturing, distributing, or possessing the compound for human consumption is technically in violation of the Federal Analogue Act.[48] But prosecutions are practically unheard of.

In the UK, however, as an ester of psilocin, it’s a Class A substance by default under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.[49] Scandalously, this places 4-AcO-DMT in the same category as fentanyl, one of the most dangerous drugs known to humanity. It therefore (at least potentially) carries the harshest drug crime sentences. As a “psychoactive substance,” it’s also prohibited under the Psychoactive Substances Act 2016.[50]

In Australia, the situation is much the same; as an ester of psilocin, 4-AcO-DMT is, by default, a strictly prohibited (Schedule 9) substance.[51] The same is true in New Zealand[52] and a number of European countries, including Germany and Italy.[7] In Sweden, 4-AcO-DMT was specifically singled out for prohibition in January 2017.[53]

It does, however, remain perfectly legal in a number of other countries—including Canada,[54] where many vendors are based.

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FAQ

09

Can 4-AcO-DMT be detected in a drug test?

Psilocin is rarely screened for, so 4-AcO-DMT is unlikely to be detected in a drug test. Although some types of extended drug test (e.g. for criminal probation) are capable of detecting psilocin, they’re only really used when its use is already suspected.

According to Erowid, psilocin can remain in the system for several weeks, and in the urine specifically for up to one week.[55]

Can I test my 4-AcO-DMT to find out if it’s safe to take?

Testing your 4-AcO-DMT is always good practice even when you trust your supplier. Reagent test kits from Bunk Police can identify hundreds of adulterants and substitutes—offering peace of mind and potentially saving your life.

The Marquis, Mecke, and Mandelin reagents, for example, can help identify real 4-AcO-DMT. Simply place a tiny amount of 4-AcO-DMT into a sterile test tube or onto a sterile white ceramic surface and add a few drops of the reagent. Then check the color change (or lack thereof) against the supplied spectrum booklet.

Can it cause psychological trauma?

Although 4-AcO-DMT has never been clinically tested on humans, long-term mental health issues are practically unheard of. That doesn’t mean it’s entirely safe, of course; long-term health effects are notoriously hard to gauge. But it does suggest that even bad trips are generally well tolerated—and this is to be expected given 4-AcO-DMT’s pharmacological similarities to the relatively well studied psilocin and psilocybin.

That said, you should probably avoid taking it if you’re prone to psychosis or other serious mental health conditions.

Are there risks?

Physical risks include vomiting, loss of consciousness, and seizures, but these are fairly uncommon. As far as we know, nobody has died from taking 4-AcO-DMT—nor is it likely to be physically dangerous for most people.

As with any psychedelic, it should probably be avoided by pregnant or breastfeeding women or anyone prone to seizures, heart problems, blood pressure problems, or mental health issues like severe anxiety—if only to err on the side of caution given the lack of clinical research.

How should I take 4-AcO-DMT?

Most people swallow the powder with water or take it intranasally by snorting/insufflating. For dosage guidelines, see Effects.

Some have also experimented with smoking or vaporizing 4-AcO-DMT, either as a salt (as it’s usually sold) or as an evaporated freebase, with mixed results. It may be a waste of the substance, though, because this method appears to require more of it for relatively minimal, mostly short-lived effects.[56] Smoking it with cannabis appears to produce stronger effects,[57][58] but extreme caution is advised (see below on combining 4-AcO-DMT with other drugs).

Some other routes of administration include injection[59] (intravenous or intramuscular) and rectal “plugging” or “boofing.”[58][60] Each of these methods is said to significantly alter the experience, but anecdotal reports are rare.

What’s the best place to buy 4-AcO-DMT online?

Because of its legal ambiguity, the research chemical market tends to be quite volatile; so a recommendation made today might not be valid tomorrow.

If it’s legal where you live, you should be able to buy 4-AcO-DMT online. You could also check forums for up-to-date listings of the highest-rated suppliers.

How do I know if I have real 4-AcO-DMT?

If you get it from a reputable 4-AcO-DMT supplier, that’s one assurance. But research chemicals can and do get missold. Whether or not you trust your vendor, it’s advisable to verify the substance with a 4-AcO-DMT test kit. Although testing kits cannot guarantee the presence of 4-AcO-DMT (or tell you the purity), they can at least rule it out if you’ve been sent something else entirely.

Genuine 4-AcO-DMT should react like this to the Marquis, Mecke, Mandelin, and Simmons reagents.

Can I microdose with 4-AcO-DMT?

Yes! Here’s our guide to microdosing 4-AcO-DMT.

How quickly does 4-AcO-DMT tolerance develop?

Tolerance develops immediately and takes roughly one to two weeks to return to baseline.[7][61][62] You should also expect a cross-tolerance effect with other psychedelics—not just psilocin, but LSD, MDMA, 2C-B, and others that work via the 5-HT (serotonin) receptors. These substances, and perhaps others, are likely to be less effective when taken within seven to fourteen days of 4-AcO-DMT.

Can I mix it with other drugs?

As mentioned in the Safety and toxicity section above, 4-AcO-DMT probably shouldn’t be taken alongside lithium, tramadol, or stimulants like amphetamines or cocaine. These have all been linked to psychosis or seizures when combined with psychedelics. The same is true of cannabis, although some find it synergistic with 4-AcO-DMT, intensifying some of the visual, sensory, and cognitive effects. MDMA is also reported to be synergistic, though unpredictable; if combining 4-AcO-DMT with MDMA, lower doses of each are recommended to avoid potential neurotoxicity and other problems. Ketamine is said to enhance visual effects, euphoria, and of course dissociation—but, like any drug combination, it should be approached with caution, taking note of the relevant warnings.[7]

Some drug combinations are advised against because they diminish the effects of 4-AcO-DMT, while potentially adding negative effects of their own. Alcohol is one example, and benzodiazepines may negate the effects of 4-AcO-DMT entirely.[7]

Footnotes

10

[1] Hofmann, A., Troxler, F., assignors; Sandoz Ltd., assignee. Esters of indoles. US patent 3,075,992. Jan 29, 1963. Retrieved from https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/originalDocument?CC=US&NR=3075992A&KC=A&FT=D&ND=&date=19630129&DB=&locale=en_EP.

[2] UNODC. (2013, Mar). The challenge of new psychoactive substances. Retrieved from https://www.unodc.org/documents/scientific/NPS_Report.pdf.

[3] Palma-Conesa, Á.J. et al. (2017). Something New about Something Old: A 10-Year Follow-Up on Classical and New Psychoactive Tryptamines and Results of Analysis. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 49(4):297-305.

[4] Palamar, J.J., Barratt, M.J., Ferris, J.A., Winstock, A.R. (2016). Correlates of new psychoactive substance use among a self-selected sample of nightclub attendees in the United States. The American Journal on Addictions, 25:400-407.

[5] Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2018). 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health Final Analytic File Codebook. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from https://samhda.s3-us-gov-west-1.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/field-uploads-protected/studies/NSDUH-2017/NSDUH-2017-datasets/NSDUH-2017-DS0001/NSDUH-2017-DS0001-info/NSDUH-2017-DS0001-info-codebook.pdf.

[6] Geiger, H.A., Wurst, M.G., Daniels, R.N. (2018). DARK Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Psilocybin. ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 9(10):2438-2447.

[7] PsychonautWiki. (2018, Nov 25). 4-AcO-DMT. Retrieved from https://psychonautwiki.org/wiki/4-AcO-DMT.

[8] feelgoodhit. (2008, Feb 26). 4-AcO-DMT vs. Psilocin [Online forum thread]. Thread posted to https://www.bluelight.org/xf/threads/4-aco-dmt-vs-psilocin.365088/.

[9] Gartz, J. (1991). Further investigations on psychoactive mushrooms of the genera Psilocybe, Gymnopilus and Conocybe. Annali dei Musei Civici di Rovereto, 7:265-274.

[10] Psychedelic Science Review. (2018, Dec 9). Baeocystin: An Ignored Psilocybin Derivative. Retrieved from https://psychedelicreview.com/baeocystin-ignored-psilocybin-derivative/.

[11] Shulgin, A., Shulgin, A. (1997). TiHKAL: The Continuation. Retrieved from https://erowid.org/library/books_online/tihkal/tihkal18.shtml.

[12] julieghoulie. Going to microdose 4-aco-dmt for depression and will post results here. [Online forum thread]. Thread posted to https://www.reddit.com/r/microdosing/comments/4lant3/going_to_microdose_4acodmt_for_depression_and/?st=j2kyh3v3&sh=73b9d9ec.

[13] honeyplume. how I fucked up taking 4-aco-DMT and nearly died [Online forum thread]. Thread posted to https://www.reddit.com/r/Drugs/comments/4xiohp/how_i_fucked_up_taking_4acodmt_and_nearly_died/.

[14] Honesty. (2007, Apr 26). Best/Most Frightening Event of My Life: An Experience with 4-AcO-DMT (exp61799). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=61799.

[15] justazimplequestion. What are the long term effects of 4aco-dmt [Online forum thread]. Thread posted to https://www.reddit.com/r/researchchemicals/comments/3s2eb2/what_are_the_long_term_effects_of_4acodmt/.

[16] David. (2010, Sep 28). High Blood Pressure/Heart Problems: An Experience with 4-AcO-DMT (exp86617). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=86617.

[17] srubek. Anyone microdose 4-ACO-DMT? Planning on it, per guidance of a mod. Experiences? [Online forum thread]. Thread posted to https://www.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/6amvut/anyone_microdose_4acodmt_planning_on_it_per/.

[18] Tripsit. (2016, Apr 14). Guide to Drug Combinations Version 3.0. Retrieved from http://wiki.tripsit.me/images/3/3a/Combo_2.png.

[19] Psychedelic Science Review. (2019, Mar 25). The Crystal Structure of 4-AcO-DMT Fumarate. Retrieved from https://psychedelicreview.com/the-crystal-structure-of-4-aco-dmt-fumarate/.

[20] reformer. (2010, Dec 7). More on 4-AcO-DMT [Online forum comment]. Message posted to https://drugs-forum.com/threads/more-on-4-aco-dmt.149679/#post-926593.

[21] Erowid. (2019, Feb 15). 4-Acetoxy-DMT Vault : Dose/Dosage. Retrieved from https://erowid.org/chemicals/4_acetoxy_dmt/4_acetoxy_dmt_dose.shtml.

[22] Tripsit wiki. O-Acetylpsilocin. Retrieved from https://wiki.tripsit.me/wiki/4-AcO-DMT.

[23] Erowid. (2015, Feb 10). 4-Acetoxy-DMT Vault : Effects. Retrieved from https://erowid.org/chemicals/4_acetoxy_dmt/4_acetoxy_dmt_effects.shtml.

[24] bran man. (2011, Aug 22). Extremely Potent Oops: An Experience with 4-AcO-DMT (exp92557). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=92557.

[25] Goddess Mode. (2017, Aug 2). DMT and Mushrooms Fans Look No Further: An Experience with 4-AcO-DMT (exp103473). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=103473.

[26] PsychedSubstance. (2017, Oct 1). SYNTHETIC SHROOMS | “What is it & are they dangerous?” [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y8PA8sTN14g.

[27] 4acothrowaway. Short term memory loss on 4-Aco-Dmt [Online forum thread]. Thread posted to https://www.reddit.com/r/Drugs/comments/2e3cn4/short_term_memory_loss_on_4acodmt/.

[28] Erowid Experience Vaults. 4-AcO-DMT (also 4-acetoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) : Erowid Exp: Main Index. Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/subs/exp_4AcODMT.shtml.

[29] Ticklish, D.H. (2008, Feb 2). “a Giant Chinese Finger Trap Made Of Rainbows…” – Part 1. Retrieved from https://www.vice.com/en_uk/article/xda85w/chinese-fingertrap-v15n2.

[30] Sam. (2012, Jan 13). A Well Deserved Poisoining: An Experience with 4-AcO-DMT (exp88848). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=88848.

[31] Allywizdum. (2017, Feb 9). Momentarily Losing Consciousness and Collapsing: An Experience with 4-AcO-DMT (exp105074). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=105074.

[32] Bodhisattva_. If you’re interested in research chemicals/hallucinogens.. I have a story for you. [Online forum thread]. Thread posted to https://www.newschoolers.com/forum/thread/691659/If-you-re-interested-in-research-chemicals-hallucinogens—I-have-a-story-for-you-.

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