The Ultimate Guide to

MDMA

(Ecstasy, E, X, XTC, Rolls, Beans, Adam, Molly)

The Ultimate Guide to MDMA

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine

C11H15NO2

Disclaimer: MDMA is a potentially illegal substance, and we do not encourage or condone the use of this substance where it is against the law. However, we accept that illegal drug use occurs, and believe that offering responsible harm reduction information is imperative to keeping people safe. For that reason, this guide is designed to ensure the safety of those who decide to use the substance.

Overview

01

3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) is a synthetic drug that alters mood and perception. Chemically similar to both stimulants and psychedelics, it produces feelings of euphoria, increased energy, empathy, and emotional well-being. Under its influence, colors and sounds (especially music) are experienced more intensely, making it a popular recreational drug at raves and music festivals.

Currently, pure crystal MDMA (the only form of the drug that may be legally administered by a medical professional) is in Phase III clinical trials for use as a therapeutic aid in the treatment of PTSD, and has been granted “Breakthrough Therapy” status by the FDA.

MDMA is often known by its street names which include “ecstasy” and “Molly.” For purposes of accuracy and clarity, we will refer to MDMA by that name, but will refer to “ecstasy” when discussing the drug in tablet form which is usually pressed along with an additional stimulant. MDMA can be taken as “ecstasy” in an oral tablet or consumed in crystal/powdered form (“Molly”) through smoking, snorting, swallowing, or dissolving it in a beverage. 

MDMA can be deadly at high doses and when combined with other drugs, especially PMA/PMMA.

History & Stats

02

Brief history

MDMA’s history began decades before the rave culture that popularized it. A common myth is that it was first synthesized and patented by the German pharmaceutical company Merck as an appetite suppressant. Merck did synthesize the drug in 1912, but the appetite suppressant story is an urban legend. It was developed as a potentially life-saving blood-clotting medicine.

Minimal testing was done in the early years after its first synthesis. It was not until 1927 that Merck revived interest in the drug after chemist Max Oberlin predicted that it might mimic adrenaline since the chemicals shared a similar molecular structure. Not long after these initial studies began, the prices of chemical precursors skyrocketed, and testing was put on hold.

While no one knows precisely when the first human trials were conducted, the US military is known to have tested MDMA and other drugs on humans in the 1950s. The first “recipe” for MDMA was published in a Polish-language scientific journal in 1960 and tablets began popping up in seized contraband in the 1970s.

When American psychopharmacologist Alexander Shulgin first read about MDMA in 1978, he synthesized it and tried it himself, becoming the first person to record MDMA use in a human subject officially.[1] In the 1980s, its use in assisted psychotherapy was said to increase patient self-esteem and facilitate therapeutic communication.[2]

While Shulgin is often called “the Godfather of Ecstasy,” MDMA’s actual creator was a German scientist named Anton Kollisch, who died in 1916 never knowing the legacy he left.

Since 1985, the drug has been listed as a Schedule I drug in the US, making it effectively illegal for all uses. However, some limited clinical trials have been approved and conducted in recent years. In 2011, a federal court sided with the ACLU, which argued that punishments for MDMA possession and use were based on outdated science which led to severe prison sentences[3]. However, other courts have upheld the previous sentencing laws.

Current use

The annual National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that MDMA had been used at least once by 13.1% of people between the ages of 18 and 25, and 6.5% of people age 26 and over. 

Time Period Ages 12 or Older Ages 12 to 17 Ages 18 to 25 Ages 26 or Older
Lifetime 6.80% 1.40% 13.10% 6.50
Past Year 1.00% 0.80% 4.10% 0.50
Past Month 0.20% 0.10% 0.90% 0.10%

These trends appear to be holding relatively steady:

18 to 25 Year Olds 26 Years Old and Over
Time Period 2013 2014 2015 2013 2014 2015
Lifetime 12.80 12.00 13.10 6.40 6.40 6.50
Past Year 4.00 3.50 4.10 0.50 0.50 0.50
Past Month 0.90 0.80 0.90 0.10 0.10 0.10

Its appearance in published reports and literature reached a peak in the early- to mid- 2000s and has fallen quite a bit since then:

Interest in MDMA

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MDMA Street Names

03

As a popular psychedelic and party drug, MDMA has earned a varied assortment of street names. In fact, there may be more nicknames for it than for any other substance besides cannabis.

Some of these refer to the compound generally, in whatever form, while others refer to set preparations. “Ecstasy” could fall into either category but it usually refers to tablets or pills.[15]  Its name was supposedly changed from “Empathy” early on to boost sales appeal.[16]

The marketing of ecstasy pills, complete with trusted logos and brand names,[17] has actually spawned a number of other enduring street names, including “Doves.” However, most ecstasy brand names, while popular in their own right, haven’t caught on as street names for pills in general. These include Mitsubishi, Little Rocket, and Dolphin (or Blue Dolphin).[18]

Some other generic street names for pills include:

  • Beans
  • Disco biscuits
  • E
  • Eckies
  • Little fellas
  • M&M’s
  • Scooby snacks
  • Vitamin E, or Vitamin X
  • X, or XTC

“Molly,” short for “molecular,” refers to crystal/powder MDMA.[19] In the UK, it’s also known as “Mandy.” Other names from around the world include:[20]

  • Adam
  • Decadence
  • Egyptians
  • Essence
  • Eve
  • Exiticity
  • Four-leaf clover
  • Glass
  • Happy drug
  • Love drug
  • Malcolm, or Malcolm X
  • Rave energy
  • Rolls
  • Speed for lovers
  • Stacy

Pharmacology

04

Receptor interactions

MDMA affects the brain by increasing the activity levels of three neurotransmitters: dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and serotonin. [4]

Increases in dopamine account for its euphoric effects as well as increased energy.  Increases in norepinephrine/noradrenaline cause physiological effects such as increased heart rate and blood pressure. And increases in the serotonin system cause changes in mood, appetite, sexual arousal, and sleep cycles. Spikes in serotonin after taking MDMA likely account for feelings of emotional closeness and empathy that are commonly reported.

Toxicology

Potentially fatal neurological complications can occur following MDMA ingestion, likely due to short-term hypertension and dehydration that is induced by the drug. Necrosis of liver and heart tissue have also been reported in individuals where death was associated with the use of amphetamine derivatives.[5]

Many fatal cases are due to abnormally high doses, prior health complications, a “bad batch,” or a combination of all of these. It’s also difficult to tell exactly how much of a role it plays in adverse reactions because subjects are more likely to have used multiple drugs.[6] As with any substance, MDMA should be used in moderation. Frequent use correlates with more complications than occasional use.[7]

Clinical studies with pure MDMA have been conducted on more than 1,100 individuals without the occurrence of severe adverse effects.[8]

Pure MDMA?

05

Purity is notoriously variable, especially in tablet form. In the US, for instance, the average MDMA concentration in ecstasy tablets is reported to be 30.13%.[21]  But this includes samples as low as 0% and as high as 100%. Also, while the sample size varies (from 1 to 1,000 pills), individual state averages can be double or half the national average.

Still, this is an improvement: In 2008, police seizures of the chemical precursor safrole meant that, for years, street MDMA concentration in pills was often zero.[22] Since then, the percentage of dud pills (tablets containing no MDMA) has been falling. Meanwhile, the percentage of ecstasy pills containing MDMA alone, without any adulterants, has been climbing. In 2009, 60.1% of ecstasy tablets worldwide contained no MDMA, whereas just 8.7% contained MDMA alone. By 2018, the situation was reversed: 8.8% of ecstasy tablets contained no MDMA, while 54.8% contained MDMA alone[23]

Part of this has to do with new manufacturing methods. Underground chemists now synthesize the drug with a less heavily restricted precursor. But it also has to do with the darknet, where vendor ratings and competition drive the quality up.[24]

In fact, far from the time when there was too little MDMA in pills, nowadays there’s often too much. Super-strength ecstasy tablets have made headlines in recent years for killing unsuspecting users. Whereas the MDMA content in ecstasy pills is traditionally between 80 and 120mg, some have been found to contain upwards of 300mg.[25] A high-end dose like this can be dangerous enough in itself, let alone when you’re not expecting it.

Reagent test kits from Bunk Police in addition to the services provided by EcstasyData.org and Pill Reports are excellent resources for gauging pill safety. Short of testing the drug before consuming it, the safest way to use ecstasy pills is to start with half a tablet and gauge how you feel after an hour.[26][27]

What about the purity of crystal/powder MDMA?

Despite what you may have been sold, even in crystal or powder form, pure MDMA is difficult to find on the street. However, as previously noted, street MDMA concentration has been climbing in recent years. In the UK, at least, it has apparently reached 83%.[28] This is pretty much the maximum purity that’s available.[29]

MDMA in pure form has by definition a purity of 100%. Unfortunately, whatever form it’s in, your sample is unlikely to be pure. There’s probably something else in it—and adulterants can be deadly. Using a test kit is a good precaution. These can identify the presence of MDMA as well as toxic adulterants by a color change you can check on a chart. However, chemical reagent tests cannot tell you the purity; they’re only indicative at best. They should, therefore, be used alongside other harm reduction practices.[30]

A caution on PMA/PMMA (aka ‘Death’)

The prohibition of MDMA in most countries (and especially the police seizures of safrole in 2008/2010 interrupting the supply of ecstasy) has led to the emergence of certain alternatives. These substances, about which we know relatively little, tend to be far more dangerous than MDMA itself. And yet they’re legal by default in many jurisdictions.

Following the procedure for making MDMA with aniseed oil instead of safrole, for example, yields not ecstasy but the problematic substances para-Methoxyamphetamine (PMA) or para-Methoxy-N-methylamphetamine (PMMA).[37] Both have been implicated in the deaths of unsuspecting users from as early as 1993.[38]  In December 2014/January 2015, for instance, at least three individuals died after taking the same pink “Superman” pills containing PMA.[36][37]

PMA/PMMA can be 10-20 times more potent than MDMA.[36][37]So users taking a “safe” dose of what they believe to be ecstasy could be massively overdosing on a far riskier substance. PMA/PMMA are also slower-acting, which means experienced ecstasy users are likely to re-dose too soon.

The trouble is, PMA/PMMA are not MDMA analogs. They have a different pharmacological action. Unlike MDMA, they block certain enzymes (e.g. monoamine oxidase, or MAO) that offset the release of serotonin. And, as a result, they can lead to serotonin syndrome, a potentially deadly overloading of the body’s serotonin levels.[37][38] Reagent testing can help to identify the presence of PMA/PMMA; however, the presence of real MDMA could disguise the presence of PMA/PMMA as adulterants. Checking pills against user reports online, e.g. at EcstasyData.org and Pill Reports, is, therefore, a sensible precaution.

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Effects

06

As mentioned earlier, most ecstasy tablets for recreational use contain between 80 and 150mg of MDMA.[9] At this dose level, the onset of effects occurs approximately 20 to 60 minutes after taking the drug, and the characteristic effects (euphoria, increased empathy and energy, enhanced sensations) typically last for three to five hours.

The high is usually characterized by a relaxed, euphoric state, including emotional openness, reduction of negative thoughts, and a decrease in inhibitions. Sounds and colors can also appear more intense.

Adverse physiological effects can occur after ingesting MDMA. These include elevated blood pressure and heart rate, nausea, chills, sweating, tremors, jaw clenching, hyperreflexia, urinary urgency, muscle aches or tension, hot and cold flushes, nystagmus (a condition in which the eyes make repetitive, uncontrolled movements), and insomnia. At higher doses, these physiological changes can result in severe adverse reactions.

MDMA overdoses can and do kill. A high dose can be a contributing factor in deadly conditions such as hyperthermia, exhaustion, or hyperhydration. Additionally, it can trigger serotonin syndrome.

Some people report an unpleasant comedown including feelings of depression and fatigue after a night of heavy MDMA use. In our microdosing course, Dr. Ben Sessa explains how the typical MDMA comedown is due to overexertion, poor sleep, poor diet, and polydrug use. As such, the comedown can be countered by eating and sleeping well before and after taking MDMA, keeping hydrated if you’re dancing, and avoiding other substances (including alcohol). Additionally, supplement kits are available online, claiming to help prepare and repair your body.

Effects by dose

NOTE: Effects listed here aren’t meant to be comprehensive, particularly at the lower dose ranges. They may be subject to change as more reliable, more widely representative data become available. These dose ranges are intentionally conservative to account for the high variability of MDMA purity. They assume 100% (aka 84%) purity.

Threshold (5-40 mg)

  • Slight mood enhancement, if at all
  • Emotional vulnerability (opened to emotional content without anxiolytic effect)

Light (40-75 mg)

  • Mild to moderate euphoria (60 mg may be equivalent to moderate dose if you have a low body weight)
  • Introspection
  • Mild pupil dilation
  • Emotional vulnerability (opened to emotional content without anxiolytic effect)
  • Frustration at dosage (too high to be comfortable, too low to be “recreational”)
  • Boredom

Moderate (75-120 mg)

  • Strong euphoria
  • Therapeutic introspection
  • Feelings of wonder
  • Heightened self-esteem
  • Openness and self-forgiveness
  • Heightened empathy and sociability
  • Lowered inhibitions
  • Spontaneity
  • Enhanced perception of light and color
  • Increased energy
  • Enhanced senses, especially tactile
  • Enhanced appreciation for music, art, etc.
  • Appetite suppression
  • Enhanced tactile sensations, including sensitivity to cold
  • Analgesia
  • Closed-eye visuals
  • Dry mouth
  • Jaw clenching/grinding
  • Orgasm suppression and erectile dysfunction
  • Insomnia
  • Possible next-day comedown effects, e.g. fatigue, depression (can also be felt over the next seven days)

Strong (120-150 mg)

NOTE: It may be unsafe to take more than 120 mg high-purity MDMA (or 1.5-1.7 mg/kg body weight, whichever is lowest), even if you have a tolerance. Positive effects appear to be maximized and negative effects minimized between 81-100 mg, ideally taken no more than once a month.

  • Strong euphoria
  • Feelings of wonder
  • Heightened empathy and sociability
  • Lowered inhibitions
  • Spontaneity
  • Enhanced perception of light and color
  • Increased energy
  • Enhanced senses, especially tactile
  • Appetite suppression
  • Enhanced tactile sensations, including sensitivity to cold
  • Analgesia
  • Slight closed-eye visuals
  • Agitation and paranoia
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Perspiration
  • Dehydration
  • Jaw clenching/grinding
  • Orgasm suppression and erectile dysfunction
  • Insomnia
  • Probable next-day comedown effects, e.g. fatigue, depression (can also be felt over the next seven days)

Heavy (150+ mg)

NOTE: Heavy doses of high-purity MDMA are potentially life-threatening, regardless of tolerance.

  • Strong euphoria
  • Feelings of wonder
  • Heightened empathy and sociability
  • Lowered inhibitions
  • Spontaneity
  • Enhanced perception of light and color
  • Increased energy
  • Enhanced senses, especially tactile
  • Surges of energy or stimulation
  • Appetite suppression
  • Enhanced tactile sensations, including sensitivity to cold
  • Analgesia
  • Closed-eye visuals
  • Possible open-eye visuals or hallucinations
  • Agitation and paranoia
  • Panic
  • Dizziness
  • Nystagmus (“eye wiggles” and blurry vision)
  • Headaches
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Perspiration
  • Shivering/trembling
  • Dehydration
  • Orgasm suppression and erectile dysfunction
  • Jaw clenching/grinding
  • Gurning
  • Insomnia
  • Seizure
  • Next-day comedown effects, e.g. fatigue, depression (can also be felt over the next seven days)

Myths

07

“Ecstasy will make me drink so much water that I’ll die”

Although one infamous ecstasy-related death was caused by overhydration, MDMA itself will not make you drink yourself to death. The victim in this case thought that by drinking a large amount of water, she would counteract an unpleasant ecstasy experience. Unfortunately, because MDMA also makes it harder for the body to process water, she died from water retention.

This doesn’t mean you should avoid drinking water when you’re on MDMA. Taking a very high dose can cause an inability to regulate your hydration, so you should make sure you’re drinking water regularly – especially if you’re dancing or exerting yourself.

The main cause of MDMA-related deaths is a lack of education. People don’t know how to take the drug safely, and end up increasing their health risks. When used responsibly, it is a relatively safe drug.

“MDMA is a clubbing drug only”

Although MDMA is very popular for use in clubs due to its enhancement of music and dance, that doesn’t mean it’s exclusively a clubber’s drug. Many people take it in a spiritual or therapeutic context. It can be used for various forms of personal and relationship development, and clinical trials are using it to treat sufferers of post-traumatic stress disorder.

“MDMA eats away at your brain”

There is no evidence that moderate use (less than 100mg every few weeks) can cause damage to your brain.

Frequent high dose use can cause heart problems and memory problems. Additionally, it’s relatively easy to overdose on MDMA if it’s combined with other drugs, especially PMA/PMMA. MDMA overdose can be lethal.

Therapeutic Use

08

PTSD

In 2017, MDMA was approved for use in Phase III clinical trials in the US to treat post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).[10][11] This is one of the last phases of testing before a drug is legally approved for therapeutic use. The trials are being funded by MAPS.

MDMA-assisted therapy for PTSD involves only a few administrations of the drug alongside guided professional therapy. The drug used in these trials is pure, with dosages strictly controlled.

Many patients who undergo this therapy are war veterans with a treatment-resistant form of PTSD. They report that MDMA therapy helped them approach their past trauma with a greater sense of acceptance, warmth, and compassion for themselves, allowing them greater opportunity to cope and heal.

Read more about the use of MDMA in the treatment of PTSD.

ANXIETY

Preliminary results from a few studies suggest MDMA is also a promising treatment for social anxiety in individuals with autism.[12]  In a clinical setting, it can be used to shift a patient with social anxiety toward openness and encourage introspection. Early results suggest this is accomplished with infrequent or even single doses, eliminating the need for frequent administration of the drug, thereby mitigating the possible adverse side effects and many of the costs associated with longer-term, more involved therapies.

This same mechanism also appears to operate in treating patients with life-threatening illnesses who experience clinical anxiety.[13]

Optimize your microdosing efforts

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Personal Growth

09

Opinions vary among spiritual leaders and guides, but MDMA is sometimes cited as a tool that can be used for spiritual growth. Some spiritual teachers laud its ability to induce feelings of oneness, interconnectedness, empathy, compassion, warmth, and kindness toward others. States such as these are often catalysts for spiritual epiphanies and personal development.

As one Benedictine monk put it:

“MDMA always propels me into an intimate space in conversation. There is a special quality to this conversation. One feels a heaviness, a sense of the weight of the moment, of something profound, of the seriousness of life itself. It is a space that is inner, without masks, without pretense, utterly open and honest. It is not an erotic intimacy, but a philosophical and mystical intimacy. Does this make any sense? One has the consciousness that this is an inner communication rarely achieved in ordinary discourse. There really are no adequate words to express this state of awareness, only to say, that it is essential in my experience.”

MDMA can be used in many different sets and settings to invoke spiritual development— from sitting quietly and introspecting, to meditating in groups, to therapy. Even rolling at raves can have a spiritual quality if approached with the right intentions.

It could also be a useful tool for building or repairing relationships. Alexander Shulgin has written frequently on its potential use as a therapy for couples. The emotional intimacy produced by the drug could be the key to understanding our relationships and perhaps finding the places that need work.

Other resources:

Legality

10

MDMA is a Schedule I substance in the US, which makes it illegal to manufacture, distribute or possess without a DEA license.[39] Scandalously, this scheduling also suggests that the drug has no therapeutic value—contrary to the findings of MDMA clinical trials for PTSD. However, given the strength of this research, it seems likely (if not inevitable) that medical MDMA will soon be available on prescription.[40] In the UK it’s a Class A, which is basically the same as Schedule I: Buying, selling, or making MDMA is illegal without a license.[41] The same is true in most countries, but some are more permissive in practice. In the Netherlands, for example, where the drug is illegal, possession of small amounts is often ignored by the police.[39] Meanwhile, in Peru, it’s perfectly legal to possess up to 250mg (one quarter of a gram), so long as it’s the only drug on you.[39][42]

FAQ

11

What is MDMA?

MDMA stands for 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine. It’s one of the world’s most popular psychedelics. Until recently it was seen as more of a “party drug” than LSD or psilocybin mushrooms. But it’s currently re-emerging as a breakthrough psychotherapeutic aid.[31] Researchers are especially enthusiastic about its potential for PTSD treatment.

It comes in two basic forms: tablets (or pills) which are often called “ecstasy” and crystals (or powder), often called “Molly.”

Can I test my MDMA to see if it’s safe to take?

Testing your MDMA is always good practice even when you trust your supplier. Reagent test kits from Bunk Police can identify hundreds of adulterants and substitutes—offering peace of mind and potentially saving your life.

DXM, MDA, methamphetamine, methylone (“bath salts”), and PMA/PMMA are some common imposters to beware of. The Marquis, Mecke, and Simon’s reagents can help to rule them out. Simply place a tiny amount of MDMA into a sterile test tube or onto a sterile white ceramic surface and add a few drops of the reagent. Then check the color change (or lack thereof) against the supplied spectrum booklet.

What type of drug is MDMA?

It is a type of amphetamine, a stimulant class of drugs that includes speed and methamphetamine. But MDMA is considerably more benign. As an amphetamine, it’s also part of the phenethylamine class of substances, like mescaline. Of course, the effects are substantially different. Based on these, MDMA may be classified as an entactogen or euphoric empathogen.

What does MDMA do?

Regardless of dosage, it’s a stimulating drug. Most people report a physical and emotional euphoria, along with mild visual effects, such as color enhancement. Increased stamina (e.g. for dancing) is also common.

Side effects include increased perspiration, dehydration, jaw clenching, and involuntary shaking.[32]

How do I take MDMA?

It may be ingested as an oral tablet;  it is also available in crystal or powdered form that can be taken orally or insufflated (snorted). Snorting MDMA tends to be unpopular, however, because of the bad flavor, potential for nose bleeds (as well as anxiety and palpitations), and the relatively short-lived effects. Many people mix the crystal into their drinks to avoid the bitter taste. Smoking or vaping is another option, but it’s even less popular than snorting.

Effects will take up to an hour to appear. Don’t redose too frequently. Don’t mix with other drugs.

How long does MDMA last?

The effects last for three to six hours. You should begin to feel them 20-90 minutes after dosing. The peak itself may last anywhere between 90 minutes and three hours before diminishing over the following one to two hours.

After the primary effects have worn off, you may experience a “comedown” or post-trip “crash” characterized by feelings of depression and fatigue. These can be mild or severe and may last between 12-72 hours, or possibly up to a week.[32][33]

How long does MDMA stay in your system?

Like other amphetamines, it stays in the system for 24-96 hours after use, with 72 hours being the average.[14]

Can it be detected in a drug test?

MDMA is structurally close enough to amphetamines to return a positive result in standard urine drug screens up to five days after use. It is also detectable in hair samples for up to 90 days.[14]

Does it produce tolerance?

MDMA depletes serotonin levels, so users often experience a “hangover” lasting up to a few days, during which they may feel depressed or mentally exhausted. Therefore, expect an MDMA tolerance to last for several days.

It’s best to avoid taking MDMA more than once a month, as long-term use can be neurotoxic and affect memory and mood.

Is it addictive?

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, studies have so far failed to definitively answer this question.[34] However, most people who actually use MDMA find it to be non-addictive.[35]

Can I mix it with other drugs?

MDMA should not be mixed with other drugs, as some combinations can be dangerous. Since it affects the kidneys and liver, it’s best to avoid combining it with alcohol. You should also avoid mixing it with DXM, tramadol, and MAOIs, as these combinations can be fatal.

The best way to take MDMA is without any other drug, and with plenty of water if you’re dancing. This should help to minimize health risks.

Can I microdose with MDMA?

Some people have reported microdosing MDMA, however, it’s possible that long-term use can be toxic. It depletes serotonin levels, and microdosing could leave you with a long hangover.MDMA should be used once a month at most, to avoid any dangers of long-term neurotoxicity.

Here’s more information about the dangers of microdosing MDMA.

Footnotes

12

[1] Shulgin, A. T., & Nichols, D. E. (1978). Characterization of three new psychotomimetics. The Pharmacology of Hallucinogens. New York: Pergamon.

[2] Green, A. R., Mechan, A. O., Elliott, J. M., O’Shea, E., & Colado, M. I. (2003). The pharmacology and clinical pharmacology of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA,“ecstasy”). Pharmacological Reviews, 55(3), 463–508.

[3] ACLU. (2011, Jul 15). Court Rejects Harsh Federal Drug Sentencing Guideline as Scientifically Unjustified. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/news/court-rejects-harsh-federal-drug-sentencing-guideline-scientifically-unjustified.

[4] NIDA. MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly). Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/mdma-ecstasymolly.

[5] Green, A. R., Mechan, A. O., Elliott, J. M., O’Shea, E., & Colado, M. I. (2003). The pharmacology and clinical pharmacology of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA,“ecstasy”). Pharmacological Reviews, 55(3), 463–508.

[6] Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E., & Daumann, J. (2006). The confounding problem of polydrug use in recreational ecstasy/MDMA users: a brief overview. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20(2), 188–193.

[7] Parrott, A. C., Sisk, E., & Turner, J. J. D. (2000). Psychobiological problems in heavy “ecstasy”(MDMA) polydrug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 60(1), 105–110.

[8] Danforth, A. L., Struble, C. M., Yazar-Klosinski, B., & Grob, C. S. (2016). MDMA-assisted therapy: a new treatment model for social anxiety in autistic adults. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 64, 237–249.

[9] Green, A. R., Mechan, A. O., Elliott, J. M., O’Shea, E., & Colado, M. I. (2003). The pharmacology and clinical pharmacology of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA,“ecstasy”). Pharmacological Reviews, 55(3), 463–508.

[10] Mukherjee, S. (2016, Nov 30). Ecstasy Could Soon Double as a Prescription Drug for PTSD Patients. Retrieved from http://fortune.com/2016/11/30/fda-mdma-approval/.

[11] Philipps, D. (2016, Nov 29). F.D.A. Agrees to New Trials for Ecstasy as Relief for PTSD Patients. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/29/us/ptsd-mdma-ecstasy.html.

[12] Danforth, A. L., Struble, C. M., Yazar-Klosinski, B., & Grob, C. S. (2016). MDMA-assisted therapy: a new treatment model for social anxiety in autistic adults. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 64, 237–249.

[13] Mithoefer, M. C., Grob, C. S., & Brewerton, T. D. (2016). Novel psychopharmacological therapies for psychiatric disorders: psilocybin and MDMA. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(5), 481–488.

[14] Erowid. (2015, Feb 10). Erowid MDMA Vault : Drug Testing. Retrieved from https://erowid.org/chemicals/mdma/mdma_testing.shtml.

[15] Erowid. (2017, Oct 19). Erowid MDMA (Ecstasy) Vault. Retrieved from https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/mdma/mdma.shtml.

[16] Saunders, N. (1993). E for Ecstasy. London: Octavo. Retrieved from http://www.ecstasy.org/books/e4x/e4x.ch.03.html.

[17] Duterte, M., Jacinto, C., Sales, P., Murphy, S. (2009). What’s in a Label? Ecstasy Sellers’ Perceptions of Pill Brands. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 41(1), 27-37.

[18] van Mil, R. (2017, Aug 10). Photos of Legendary Ecstasy Pills From the Last 20 Years. Retrieved from https://www.vice.com/en_nz/article/zmv9j9/photos-of-legendary-ecstasy-pills-from-the-last-20-years.

[19] Palamar, J. (2014, Dec 17). From ecstasy to molly – what’s in a name when it comes to drug use? Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/from-ecstasy-to-molly-whats-in-a-name-when-it-comes-to-drug-use-35102.

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  1. Balam says

    The term “beans” is a bit of misinformation.

    In the 90’s/ early 2000’s a large shipment of Asian pills hit the streets. The street name for these pills was “beans”. Beans were actually used to help people that were “over dosing” on cocaine. The combination of “beans” with cocaine would make the person feel like they were rolling. I should know, I actually saw loads of those pills hit the streets and I actually used them while using coke at the time.

    The problem began when trying to re-dose. If you took more than 2 pills you would become extremely lethargic. The first time I took a bean while heavily coked it was amazing. It felt just like rolling on MDMA.

    The 2nd time after I had several hundred pills on me I ended up popping a total of 5. Huge mistake because I thought I was dying and even if I was I couldn’t get out of bed to call a paramedic. Luckily it passed but some people started selling these “beans” as “E” I actually never bought another batch. I told anyone that had bought some off of me to please be careful and not take more than 2. I also told them it was intended for a comedown from coke. Regardless, some people took 5 just like me and found out the hard way that I was not making it up.

    Anyway, please don’t confuse people because “beans” are still being sold as “beans.”