The Essential Guide to Kratom

(Mitragyna speciosa, Ketum, Biak-biak, Kakuam, Thom, Ithang)

The Essential Guide to Kratom

Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine

C23H30N2O4 and C23H30N2O5

Disclaimer: Kratom is a potentially illegal substance, and we do not encourage or condone the use of this substance where it is against the law. However, we accept that illegal drug use occurs, and believe that offering responsible harm reduction information is imperative to keeping people safe. For that reason, this guide is designed to ensure the safety of those who decide to use the substance.
This guide may contain references to our products or those of our affiliate partners. We encourage you to read our Revenue & Transparency page to learn more about how we fund our mission.

Overview

01

Kratom is the common name for Mitragyna speciosa, a tropical evergreen native to the marshy jungles of Southeast Asia. It grows wild in central and southern Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Myanmar, and elsewhere in the Pacific Rim.

Known for its hanging clusters of deep yellow flowers and reaching up to 42 feet (13 meters) in height, kratom has numerous uses in folk medicine. Traditionally, the broad green leaves are plucked by hand and dried in the sun, to be brewed as a tea or pulverized and swallowed with water.

Since the beginning of the 21st century, kratom has increased in visibility around the world. Regular users see it as an invaluable aid for mental and physical health, while others enjoy its dual recreational value as a stimulant or sedative-narcotic (depending on the dose).

History & Stats

02

It’s not clear when kratom use began, but the practice is thought to be ancient.[1][2] In its native growing regions, leaves from the plant may be used to numb aches and pains, soothe fevers, treat diarrhea, manage diabetes, and alleviate addiction. They have also been applied as poultices to wounds or spread across the abdomen to drive out worms.[3]

Perhaps the most popular use has been to chew on the leaves for energy—similar to the way coca is used in the Andes. In Thailand, peasant workers have been known to chew up to ten times a day while working outside in the sun.[4]

From at least as far back as the early 19th century in Malaysia, kratom has also been used as a sedative—especially as a replacement for opium.[5]

Amid growing enthusiasm for kratom’s medical potential, the active constituent mitragynine was isolated in 1921 and tested on humans in 1932. It was likened to cocaine for its stimulant effects on the central nervous system.[5]

By the early 1940s, the government of Thailand was seeing a massive decline in opium tax revenue.[6] Evidently, addicts were turning to kratom—an unregulated drug—to manage their withdrawal symptoms. The Kratom Act was passed in August 1943, forbidding anyone from cultivating the plant and ordering all existing specimens destroyed.[1]

Elsewhere, scientific interest prevailed. More than 20 alkaloids were isolated during the 1960s and, in 1994, the second of kratom’s primary active compounds was identified: 7-hydroxymitragynine.[4][5] The following year saw the first synthesis of mitragynine.[7]

Public awareness of kratom flourished throughout the early 2000s, mainly via online message boards. In 2005, however, both M. speciosa and mitragynine were scheduled in Australia, banning them for sale or possession without a license.[2] Enforcement of the Kratom Act also ramped up in Thailand, where arrests quintupled between 2005 and 2009.[6] In 2012, when Thai police ordered the destruction of hundreds of wild kratom trees in a protected area of forest in Satun Province, locals resisted their attempts.[8]

In the United States, various advocacy and campaign groups, including the American Kratom Association, Botanical Education Alliance, and United Kratom Association, have sprung up to safeguard kratom’s legality. Thanks to efforts like theirs, the DEA was forced to withdraw an August 2016 “notice of intent” to place kratom into Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act.[9][10]

Current use

Interest in kratom continues to grow—having spiked when the DEA threatened to ban it. A survey conducted around the same time found that, of 6,150 kratom users, 51% used it for pain, 14% for anxiety, and 9% for opiate withdrawal.[11]

 Kratom is commonly sourced from online “legal high” vendors,[12] but it’s far from widely used. In 2014, it ranked among the top 20 drugs only in Hungary, where just 1.5% of the sample had used it.[13]

 It does, however, remain popular in Thailand—despite its criminalization and the social stigma attached.[14] Of 1,000 teenagers surveyed, 94% used kratom, mostly as an ingredient in “4×100” cocktails. This formidable homemade concoction blends kratom tea, Coca-Cola, cough syrup (including codeine or diphenhydramine), and an anxiolytic, antidepressant, or analgesic drug. Served ice cold, it may also contain road paint, pesticides, powder from fluorescent tubes, and pretty much anything else rumored to “enhance” its effects.[6]

If you’re enjoying this guide, you’ll probably love the information in our detailed Microdosing Course.

Microdosing is the most exciting trend in the world today when it comes to unlocking creativity, focus, and self-expression. But a lot of people don’t know where to start – or get overwhelmed by trying to figure everything out themselves from broken resources around the internet.

That’s why we put together this detailed, step-by-step course. It explains everything you wanted to know about microdosing (and even answers the questions you didn’t know to ask).

Pharmacology

03

Among other phytochemicals, kratom contains the indole alkaloids mitragynine (9-methoxy-corynantheidine) and 7-hydroxymitragynine.

Mitragynine draws comparisons to psilocybin and ergine (LSA) for its 4-substituted structure,[5] and was previously thought to be the primary active compound. More recently, however, the terpenoid 7-hydroxymitragynine has been found to be 46 times more potent, with greater oral bioavailability and blood-brain barrier penetration.[15][16]

Receptor binding

7-hydroxymitragynine is a highly selective mu- and kappa-opioid receptor agonist, acting mainly on the former subtype.[16][17] Mitragynine is a partial mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptor agonist, but can also act on the 5-HT2A serotonergic and alpha2-adrenergic receptors, as well as neuronal Ca2+ channels.[15][16][18][19]

The mechanism behind kratom’s stimulant effects is unclear. Since both compounds interact mainly with the opioid receptors, there’s likely to be some other alkaloid involved.[17]

Safety and toxicity

Mitragynine shows negligible toxicity, even at high doses.[20] For example, no fatalities were recorded in rats given 1000 mg/kg oral doses of kratom leaf extract or 806 mg/kg isolated mitragynine. Rhesus monkeys injected with 9.2 mg/kg mitragynine (IV) also presented no fatalities.[19]

But this doesn’t mean kratom is totally safe. For one thing, different preparations may contain different amounts of phytochemicals and adulterants.[15] There’s also been relatively little research into the long-term health risks of regular kratom use.[21]

Of particular concern are reports of seizures, which increased fivefold in Thailand between 2005 and 2011.[15] Most kratom-related seizures are attributed to adverse drug combinations, but they’re still a cause for concern.[18][22][23]

Liver problems may also occur after two to eight weeks of regular kratom use.[15][17] Symptoms include nausea, itching, dark urine, abdominal pain, and jaundice. Heavy users might notice a hyperpigmentation or darkening of the cheeks due to over-stimulation of melanocytes.[15] Kratom might also be cardiotoxic; further research is called for.[24]

Some other issues linked to kratom use, albeit more rarely, include sleep problems, hypotension, tremors, temporary erectile dysfunction, sweating, hair loss, dry mouth, and anorexia.[2][4][15][25]

Evidence suggests psychosis, including paranoid delusions, hallucinations, and confusion, may be caused by regular use spanning a decade or more.[1] Animal studies have also highlighted a link between chronic use and memory/learning problems.[26]

While a number of human fatalities have been linked to kratom use, there are usually other substances present.[27] In one case, 0.6 mg/L mitragynine was detected alongside over-the-counter cold medicines and benzodiazepines.[28]

Effects

04

Generally speaking, a moderate dose of plain dried leaf (powdered) is 3-6 g, but anything above 5 g is considered strong.[2][27] Kratom is usually consumed with fruit juice or water. A popular method is the ‘toss ‘n wash’, which involves placing the powder in the mouth and chasing it down with a drink.

What to expect

On an empty stomach, the effects are noticeable from around the 15-20 minute mark, gradually building in intensity and peaking for two to four hours. Stronger doses may have a shorter onset.

Lower doses are often more stimulating. They may be characterized by increased motivation, talkativeness, and sociability, along with a feeling of euphoria and physical energy. Some people find the stimulant effects of kratom a little too “edgy” to be pleasant, at least at first. Other disagreeable effects—including sweating, nausea, dizziness, and dysphoria—can also be experienced during the onset period, but they usually give way in time.

At the higher, sedative dose ranges, users report a diminished sensitivity to physical and emotional pain, and a feeling of general contentedness. Some go into a kind of “waking-dreaming” reverie, especially when listening to music. Ethnobotanist and author Daniel Siebert likened this to the state prized by 19th-century Romantics, who used opium to keep one foot in dreamland and the other in the real world.

Additional effects might include mild visuals (both open- and closed-eye), a warming sensation, increased empathy, and possibly sexual arousal. The pupils are likely to constrict if they change size at all.[2][4][15][27][29][30]

Precautions

Some users get very thirsty during the onset, so it’s best to have water to hand. Any nausea that arises can be managed by keeping still until it passes. Swallowing kratom gradually can also help, however tempting it is to knock it back in one gulp to avoid the bitter taste.[27]

Driving and other potentially dangerous activities should be avoided—even if you feel stimulated. The effects of kratom can change from stimulant to sedative without warning, so sometimes just turning on the stove could be risky.[2][27]

New users should start with a low dose, precisely weighed out on an accurate digital scale. The same goes for more experienced users trying a new strain, due to the variability between them.[27][31]

Some “kratom products” may also contain adulterants, including morphine, hydrocodone, and fentanyl.[19][27] In Sweden, nine people died from the “enhanced kratom preparation” Krypton—a blend of kratom, caffeine, and O-desmethyltramadol.[12][32] The latter, a bioactive metabolite of tramadol, is a dangerously potent opioid. Other “kratom products” have been found to contain no kratom at all.[33]

Another important consideration is the risk of addiction. Setting a personal limit of once or twice a week (or ideally once or twice a month) can be useful.[27] Symptoms of addiction include anorexia and weight loss, insomnia, frequent urination, constipation, and darkened skin.[1] Withdrawal symptoms, which can last about a week, include weakness, muscle pain, lethargy, cravings, nausea, jerkiness, insomnia, hallucinations, and diarrhea.[1][4]

Myths

05

“Green- or white-veined strains are the most energizing”

Kratom “strains” are often distinguished by the color of the veins in their leaves. Green- or white-veined strains are said to be stimulating and red-veined strains more sedating.

It’s a convenient distinction but it’s also one without basis. Far from being different strains, green- and red-veined leaves are seen growing from the same tree. Differences in vein color have more to do with genetics, maturity, and exposure to sunlight.[27]

“Strain rotation avoids tolerance”

Rotating strains throughout the week so that no strain is taken on two consecutive days supposedly circumvents tolerance. But in truth it’s more likely to increase it. While different strains have differing levels of the active indole alkaloids, those same alkaloids are nonetheless present in all.[27] To avoid tolerance (not to mention addiction), it’s best just to moderate use.

If you’re enjoying this guide, you’ll probably love the information in our detailed Microdosing Course.

Microdosing is the most exciting trend in the world today when it comes to unlocking creativity, focus, and self-expression. But a lot of people don’t know where to start – or get overwhelmed by trying to figure everything out themselves from broken resources around the internet.

That’s why we put together this detailed, step-by-step course. It explains everything you wanted to know about microdosing (and even answers the questions you didn’t know to ask).

Therapeutic Use

06

There are no mainstream medical uses for kratom, but it shows great therapeutic potential.

Daniel Siebert described it as one of the most effective herbal analgesics, second only to opium.[27] 7-hydroxymitragynine in particular is 13 times more potent than morphine and considerably less addictive.[15] Withdrawal symptoms from kratom are also far milder and more short-lived. Mitragynine, meanwhile, is seen as a potential replacement for codeine, offering comparable analgesic effects[34][35] without the fatal respiratory depression.[7] Curiously, synthetic mitragynine is less potent than extracted mitragynine.[36]

Kratom could also come to replace methadone in the treatment of heroin addiction[5][18][27][37]—especially given its relative ease of production, making it ideal for poor and developing countries.[38] It could be a viable alternative to alcohol too, since it promotes relaxation and sociability without the emotional/physical hangover.[39][40]

At least one study supports the growing use of kratom to manage anxiety and depression. Mice injected with mitragynine were found to have lower levels of corticosterone, a hormone involved in the regulation of stress responses and energy.[41] The open, introspective mindset that kratom creates may also be useful in psychotherapy.[5]

Other conditions that kratom shows potential for include diarrhea,[2][42] chronic pain,[4][43] inflammation,[15] arthritis,[44] migraines,[45][46] and even cancer.[15][47]

Personal Growth

07

Most users take kratom for pain, anxiety, or some other specific condition, but it’s also considered a “plant teacher”—a tool for exploration and growth. Described by one user as a “nurturing mirror,” it can gently draw attention to areas of personal and interpersonal dysfunction.[48] These can be explored within the context of an emotionally honest, “entactogenic” high.[29]

Some users report that kratom can reduce social anxiety, and even improve sexual performance.

Liberated from the confines of everyday thought patterns, people also find greater appreciation for being alive.[40][49]

Legality

08

Kratom isn’t federally controlled in the United States, but it is a “drug of concern.”[4] Individual states, including Indiana, Tennessee, Wisconsin, Vermont, Arkansas, and Alabama, have banned the plant in various forms, while others have legislation pending.[50]

In the UK, kratom is criminalized under the Psychoactive Substances Act.[51] The plant and its active alkaloids is controlled by various measures in a number of EU member states, including Denmark, Poland, and Sweden. It’s also illegal in Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand, among other countries.[4]

If you’re enjoying this guide, you’ll probably love the information in our detailed Microdosing Course.

Microdosing is the most exciting trend in the world today when it comes to unlocking creativity, focus, and self-expression. But a lot of people don’t know where to start – or get overwhelmed by trying to figure everything out themselves from broken resources around the internet.

That’s why we put together this detailed, step-by-step course. It explains everything you wanted to know about microdosing (and even answers the questions you didn’t know to ask).

FAQ

09

Can it be detected in a drug test?

Kratom won’t be detected by either standard or enhanced drug tests. And despite its similarity to opiates, it’s unlikely to trigger a false positive.[27]

Specialist laboratory tests such as GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) are able to detect kratom in urine, but they’re not routinely used.[4]

Can kratom cause psychological trauma?

Evidence suggests there may be a link between prolonged, regular kratom use (or addiction) and deluded thoughts.[1] While moderate use isn’t likely to be problematic psychologically, some users have developed anxiety (although others use kratom to treat it).

The kratom “high” itself is actually pretty mild and manageable compared to many other psychoactive substances.

Are there risks?

Kratom is apparently safe for most healthy individuals. However, it’s always a good idea to start with a tiny test dose in case of allergies or adverse reactions. It may be especially risky for people with liver damage, due to the way it’s metabolized.[17] Effects on pregnancy are unknown.[27]

Is it legal to grow at home?

It depends on state law. But even in states where kratom is banned it may still be legal to grow for aesthetic purposes.

For growing tips, check out The Kratom User’s Guide.

What is the safest way to take kratom?

Most people take kratom orally, either washed down with or mixed into a drink. It can also be added to food. Strong, sweet flavors are good for masking the taste, so yogurt, applesauce, fruit juice, and chocolate milk are popular. Alternatively, kratom can be put into gel caps for easier dosing and consumption.

Smoking kratom isn’t recommended because it requires too many leaves. Usually, dried kratom has to be brewed, filtered, and evaporated before it can be smoked. The resulting substance—a kind of syrupy resin—is traditionally added to palas palm (Licuala grandis) leaves in the bowl of a long “madat” pipe.[3]

Chewing fresh leaves is a more viable alternative. Effects may be felt from as little as half of a large, 8-inch leaf (or 1.7 g[27]), although between one and three leaves is more common.[4] The fibrous ribs and veins should be removed before chewing.

Various extracts, tinctures, and preparations are also available, but they could contain other ingredients.

What are the differences between strains?

Potency can vary substantially between the strains (e.g. Bali, Maeng Da, Red Vein Kali, etc.), but they all contain the same active alkaloids.

Can I use kratom to microdose?

Kratom may not be suitable for microdosing due to possible damage to the liver. It’s also unclear whether kratom is even active at sub-perceptual doses.

Does it produce tolerance?

With frequent use, i.e. more than once or twice a week, tolerance tends to build up. It may take several weeks of abstinence to return to normal sensitivity. There’s also a cross-tolerance effect with morphine.[4]

Can I mix it with other drugs?

Negative experiences with kratom, including seizures and death, very often involve other drugs[15]—so it’s advisable not to mix them at all.

Kratom certainly shouldn’t be mixed with other stimulants, including yohimbine, cocaine, amphetamines, and excessive amounts of caffeine. Nor should it be mixed with depressants, including opiates, benzodiazepines, and alcohol, due to the risk of breathing problems and death.[27]

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), including ayahuasca and some types of antidepressants, should also be avoided.

Find out more about risky drug combinations here.

Footnotes

10

[1] Suwanlert, S. (1975). A Study of Kratom Eaters in Thailand. Bulletin on Narcotics, 27(3), 21-27.

[2] Erowid. (2008, Oct 29). Kratom Basics. Retrieved from https://erowid.org/plants/kratom/kratom_basics.shtml.

[3] Wray, L. (1909). “Biak”: An Opium Substitute. Journal of the Federated Malay States Museums, 2, 53-6.

[4] EMCDDA. (2015, Jan 8). Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) drug profile. Retrieved from http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/drug-profiles/kratom.

[5] Jansen, K. L. R., Prast, C. J. (1988). Ethnopharmacology of Kratom and the Mitragyna Alkaloids. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 23, 115-119.

[6] Tanguay, P. (2011). Kratom in Thailand: Decriminalisation and Community Control? Transnational Institute Series on Legislative Reform of Drug Policies, 13.

[7] Raffa, R. B. (2014). Kratom and Other Mitragynines: The Chemistry and Pharmacology of Opioids from a Non-Opium Source. CRC Press.

[8] Fuller, T. (2012, Jul 23). A Fading Thai Drug Finds Its Resurgence in a Cocktail. Retrieved from http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E05EFDC103EF930A15754C0A9649D8B63.

[9] Lynch, C. (2016, Oct 2). Is the DEA high? The agency’s emergency ban on kratom has to make you wonder what they’re smoking. Retrieved from https://www.salon.com/2016/10/02/is-the-dea-high-the-agencys-emergency-ban-on-kratom-has-to-make-you-wonder-what-theyre-smoking/.

[10] DEA 21 CFR Part 1308: Withdrawal of Notice of Intent to Temporarily Place Mitragynine and 7- Hydroxymitragynine into Schedule I, 81 Fed. Reg. 59929 (October 13, 2016).

[11] Pain News Network. (2016, Sep 20). Survey Of 6,000 Kratom Users Shows No Evidence Of Epidemic Or Abuse Justifying DEA Push To Ban Coffee-Like Herb. Retrieved from http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/survey-of-6000-kratom-users-shows-no-evidence-of-epidemic-or-abuse-justifying-dea-push-to-ban-coffee-like-herb-300331148.html.

[12] Dargan, P., Wood, D. (2013). Novel Psychoactive Substances: Classification, Pharmacology and Toxicology. Academic Press.

[13] Global Drug Survey. (2014). Last 12 Month Prevalence of Top 20 Drugs. Retrieved from https://www.globaldrugsurvey.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/last-12-months-drug-prevalence.pdf.

[14] UNODC. (2014). World Drug Report. Retrieved from https://www.unodc.org/documents/wdr2014/World_Drug_Report_2014_web.pdf.

[15] Cinosi, E. et al. (2015). Following “the Roots” of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): The Evolution of an Enhancer from a Traditional Use to Increase Work and Productivity in Southeast Asia to a Recreational Psychoactive Drug in Western Countries. BioMed Research International, 2015.

[16] Prozialeck, W. C., Jivan, J. K., Andurkar, S. V. (2012). Pharmacology of Kratom: An Emerging Botanical Agent With Stimulant, Analgesic and Opioid-Like Effects. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 112, 792-799.

[17] Kapp, F. G., Maurer, H. H., Auwärter, V., Winkelmann, M., Hermanns-Clausen, M. (2011). Intrahepatic Cholestasis Following Abuse of Powdered Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa). Journal of Medical Toxicology, 7(3), 227-231.

[18] Boyer, E. W., Babu, K. M., Adkins, J. E., McCurdy, C. R., Halpern, J. H. (2008). Self-treatment of opioid withdrawal using kratom (Mitragynia speciosa korth). Addiction, 103(6), 1048-1050.

[19] Ujváry, I. (2014). Psychoactive natural products: overview of recent developments. Ann Ist Super Sanità, 50(1), 12-27.

[20] Schultes, R. E., Hofmann, A., Rätsch, C. (2001). Plants of the Gods: Their Sacred Healing and Hallucinogenic Powers. Rochester, NY: Inner Traditions Bear and Company.

[21] Swogger, M. T. et al. (2015). Experiences of Kratom Users: A Qualitative Analysis. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 47(5), 360-7.

[22] Nelsen, J. L., Lapoint, J., Hodgman, M. J., Aldous, K. M. (2010). Seizure and Coma Following Kratom (Mitragynina speciosa Korth) Exposure. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 6, 424-426.

[23] Vigil, T. (2014, March 1). Denver family warns others about dangers of legal herbal stimulant. Retrieved from http://kdvr.com/2014/03/01/denver-family-warns-others-about-dangers-of-legal-herbal-stimulant/.

[24] Lu, J. et al. (2014). Evaluation of the Cardiotoxicity of Mitragynine and Its Analogues Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes. PLoS One, 9(12).

[25] Harizal, S. N., Mansor, S. M., Hasnan, J., Tharakan, J. K., Abdullah, J. (2010). Acute toxicity study of the standardized methanolic extract of Mitragyna speciosa Korth in rodent. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 131(2), 404-9.

[26] Apryani, E., Hidayat, M. T., Moklas, M. A., Fakurazi, S., Idayu, N. F. (2010). Effects of mitragynine from Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves on working memory. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 129(3), 357-60.

[27] Siebert, D., “Sage Student”. (2016, Oct 12). The Kratom User’s Guide. Retrieved from http://www.sagewisdom.org/kratomguide.html.

[28] Neerman, M. F., Frost, R. E., Deking, J. (2013). A drug fatality involving Kratom. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 58 Suppl 1, 278-9.

[29] BlueSummer. (2015, Nov 22). The Drug That Feels Just Right in Every Way: An Experience with Kratom (ID 102713). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=102713.

[30] C-Rizzle. (2008, Nov 9). Quite An Adventure: An Experience with Kratom (15x extract) (ID 72756). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=72756.

[31] UNODC. (1974). The alkaloids of Mitragyna. Retrieved from https://erowid.org/plants/kratom/kratom_journal2.shtml.

[32] Kronstrand, R., Roman, M., Thelander, G., Eriksson, A. (2011). Unintentional fatal intoxications with mitragynine and O-desmethyltramadol from the herbal blend Krypton. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 35(4), 242-7.

[33] Hanna, J. (2003). Bogus Kratom Market Exposed. The Entheogen Review, 12(1).

[34] Shamima, A. R. et al. (2012). Antinociceptive Action of Isolated Mitragynine from Mitragyna Speciosa through Activation of Opioid Receptor System, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13(9), 11427-11442.

[35] Matsumoto, K. et al. (1996). Central antinociceptive effects of mitragynine in mice: contribution of descending noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. European Journal of Pharmacology, 317(1), 75-81.

[36] Sabetghadam, A., Ramanathan, S., Mansor, S. M. (2010). The evaluation of antinociceptive activity of alkaloid, methanolic, and aqueous extracts of Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves in rats. Pharmacognosy Research, 2(3), 181-185.

[37] Babu, K. M., McCurdy, C. R., Boyer, E. W. (2008). Opioid receptors and legal highs: Salvia divinorum and Kratom. Clinical Toxicology (Philadelphia, PA.), 46(2), 146-52.

[38] Vicknasingam, B., Narayanan, S., Beng, G. T., Mansor, S. M. (2010). The informal use of ketum (Mitragyna speciosa) for opioid withdrawal in the northern states of peninsular Malaysia and implications for drug substitution therapy. The International Journal on Drug Policy, 21(4), 283-8.

[39] Torchlight. (2015, March 1). A Substitute for Alcohol: An Experience with Kratom (Isolate Extract Powder) (ID 90524). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=90524.

[40] ConstantEnergy. (2017, Jan 4). It Makes Me Love Life: An Experience with Kratom (ID 106116). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=106116.

[41] Idayu, N. F. et al. (2011). Antidepressant-like effect of mitragynine isolated from Mitragyna speciosa Korth in mice model of depression. Phytomedicine, 18(5), 402-7.

[42] Chittrakarn, S., Sawangjaroen, K., Prasettho, S., Janchawee, B., Keawpradub, N. (2008). Inhibitory effects of kratom leaf extract (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) on the rat gastrointestinal tract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 116(1), 173-8.

[43] Ingraham, C. (2016, Sep 15). The DEA wants to ban another plant. Researchers say the plan is ‘insane.’ Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/09/15/the-dea-wants-to-ban-another-plant-researchers-say-the-plan-is-insane/?utm_term=.f83f3fb97b95.

[44] Snarky. (2008, Sep 26). Arthritis Relief: An Experience with Kratom (ID 72134). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=72134.

[45] Engrgamer. (2009, Aug 28). Legitimate Alternative: An Experience with Kratom Powder (ID 71290). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=71290.

[46] American Kratom Association. Success Stories. Retrieved from http://www.americankratom.org/success_stories.

[47] Goh, T. B., Koh, R. Y., Mordi, M. N., Mansor, S. M. (2014). Antioxidant value and antiproliferative efficacy of mitragynine and a silane reduced analogue. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 15(14), 5659-65.

[48] WanderRA. (2011, Jan 9). Excellent Self Healing Session: An Experience with Kratom (15x extract) (ID 85164). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=85164.

[49] Kratom Stories. Retrieved from http://kratomstories.org/tag/personal-growth/.

[50] American Kratom Association. Legal Status. Retrieved from http://www.americankratom.org/legal_status.

[51] Sullivan, D. (2016, May 26). Caught In The Act. Retrieved from http://volteface.me/features/psa-act/.

Always know what’s
happening in psychedelics

We'll send you selections of our most popular content, plus updates on research, live events, new articles, free educational resources and exclusive discounts.

Reader Interactions

Comments

  1. Kratom is the name of the leaves from Mitragyna speciosa tree. Kratom found in Southeast Asia and grows wild in central and southern Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Myanmar, and elsewhere in the Pacific Rim. Kratom mostly popular use has been to chew on the leaves for energy. Kratom is categorized into 3 strains that are Green veins strains, Red Vein strains, and White vein strains.

  2. There are several amazing benefits of Kratom. For example, it boosts immunity, it helps to relieve muscle pain, you can also use it as an energy booster. Even I have been using it for past two years and have not experienced any severe side effects, just mild headaches.

  3. I always support natural products. And obviously Kratom is that kind of product I was looking for. Though I didn’t know enough of it. When I was looking for something for my severe pain someone recommended me to use Kratom. And finally, I got a good feedback. Happy to use such kind of natural proudct.

  4. Hey you forget to mention about the strongest and most popular kratom strains with greater alkaloids .. maeng da definitely the most popular but not confirmed yet that has more alkaloids then any other strain. Bali is the main region for producing quality kratom strains.

    • Although Kratom is not illegal for personal use in Canada, it is not legally possible to sell the herb or anything containing Kratom in Canada

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *