The Essential Guide to Datura

(Jimsonweed, Devil’s weed, Devil’s trumpet, Moonflower, Toloache)

The Essential Guide to Datura

Atropine, Scopolamine, and Hyoscyamine

Disclaimer: Datura is a potentially illegal substance, and we do not encourage or condone the use of this substance where it is against the law. However, we accept that illegal drug use occurs, and believe that offering responsible harm reduction information is imperative to keeping people safe. For that reason, this guide is designed to ensure the safety of those who decide to use the substance.

Overview

01

Datura is a genus of flowering plant from the nightshade family. The sweet-scented and trumpet-shaped flowers are known across the world for their potential as a poison, medicine, and entheogen. The species that comprise the genus Datura thrive throughout the globe in tropical and temperate climates, sometimes even in the strangest conditions such as growing near landfills and roadsides. Of the nine species, some of the best known are Datura innoxia for its well documented use in pre-Colombian America, Datura metel for its use in traditional Chinese medicine, and Datura stramonium for its long history of use in sacred rituals. Other names for the Datura plants are Jimsonweed, Moonflower, Devil’s Weed, and Devil’s Trumpet.

Physical features of the Datura plant change with location and conditions. However, most plants will grow to be about three feet tall. They produce trumpet shaped flowers that can range from 3 inches to 7.5 inches in diameter. The flowers come in various colors from pure white to mixtures of white, purple, and yellow. The Datura plants disperse their seeds from small, circular fruit capsules that are covered in protective spines. When ripe the fruit splits open releasing Datura seeds to the ground.

Due to its wide variety of traditional uses, we’ve learned that the seeds, leaves, flowers, roots, and stems of Datura plants can be ingested, smoked, or converted to a skin ointment. Certain preparations are known to produce a unique visionary experience, characterized by lasting delirium and realistic hallucinations, including perceived communion with long-dead relatives.

Fatal overdoses and adverse reactions are very common and few who recommend the plant do so without restraint. Extreme caution is advised.

 

History & Stats

02

Datura has been used around the world for thousands of years in medicine, magic, and other, more nefarious activities. In Ancient India, it was just as commonly used in the treatment of fevers, inflammations, and mental disorders as it was by criminal gangs to drug their victims.[1] In fact, the genus name Datura may even derive from a notorious band of thieves known as the dhatureas.[2]

In Ancient Greece and Rome, Datura stramonium was an important soporific and anodyne.[3] It was also ritually burned for the Oracle at Delphi to produce a trance-inducing smoke.[4]

Datura also played an important role in Buddhist and Hindu esotericism as a crucial ingredient for black magic rituals. Among other things, it was used to appease wrathful deities and to inflict insanity, death, and discord on one’s enemies[5][6][7] In addition to salt, oil, and black mustard seeds, datura was one of the “supreme destroyers” of tantric tradition.[8] It is also a symbol of Shiva, the “destroyer and transformer,” from whose chest it is said to have sprouted and to whom it is still offered in ritual.[1][9]

The Aztecs saw both the destructive and creative potential of the plant, which they knew as toloatzin. They crafted healing rubs out of it, but also gave it to human sacrifice victims before removing their hearts. The ancient Colombian Indians, meanwhile, are said to have drugged the wives and slaves of dead men with Datura-laced beer before burying them alive with the deceased.[10]

In medieval Europe, Datura was firmly associated with witchcraft and was used to make “flying ointment” for transporting witches to their midnight sabbats. It is thought to have been administered through the absorbent membranes of the vagina using broomstick handles, hence their association with the craft.[2][12]

Despite its notoriety and distinctive appearance, Datura is often mistakenly eaten as food. In 1676, a troop of British soldiers in Jamestown, Virginia boiled up the leaves of Datura stramonium for a meal and went insane for eleven days. Sitting around gawping, grinning, sneering, and blowing feathers in the air—apparently unaware of their own excrement piling up—they were confined for their own safety until the effects wore off. And although the soldiers had no memory of their experience, Datura has long been known as “jimsonweed” (from “Jamestown weed”) in their memory.[4][13]

From the 1800s, Datura was investigated for its potential in mainstream medicine. Dr. R. Schiffman’s Asthmador Cigarettes were one of several medicated smoking products developed to relieve asthma. Many of these contained nothing but the plant itself. Eventually their unusual side effects and increasing recreational use led to their ban, but many long-time sufferers, including writer Marcel Proust, swore by them for relief.[14]

In the early 1830s, the first of Datura’s active alkaloids, atropine, was isolated. Shortly thereafter, scopolamine, another Datura alkaloid, was also isolated. This latter compound had another very specific medical application: eliminating the trauma of childbirth—or at least the memory of it. The treatment was known as Dämmerschlaf (“twilight sleep”) and involved repeated injections of scopolamine and morphine during labor to produce an amnesic effect. Although women still screamed in agony at the time, they didn’t remember it afterward.[15]

Doctors who administered “twilight sleep” also found it increased their patients’ suggestibility and candidness. Accordingly, by 1922, an obstetrician named Robert House developed scopolamine as the world’s first “truth serum.” Since then, it has been used by the Nazis, CIA, and various secret police forces.[16][17][18]

Presently, people commonly associate the plant with Carlos Castaneda and his apocryphal Yaqui mentor, Don Juan Matus.[19]

Current usage

Datura is used today much as it always has been—for magic, medicine, and crime. Current usage statistics are limited but those who do experiment with Datura rarely do so again.[20]

Datura innoxia is often found as toloache on the witches’ markets of Mexico and Latin America, to be used in neo-shamanic divination or love magic.[4] In Tanzania, Datura is applied as a topical anti-inflammatory or added to pombe beer to induce hallucinations.[1] It’s also heavily cultivated in a number of tropical African countries for use in pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and bioremediation projects (e.g. filtering waste from contaminated soil. [4][21]

In Colombia, scopolamine has allegedly been slipped into people’s drinks by opportunistic thieves. Apparently, this gives them complete control over their victims’ behavior, with no outward appearance of coercion.[22]

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Pharmacology

03

Atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine/daturine (the l-enantiomer of atropine) are the primary active constituents in all Datura species. As tropane alkaloids, they’re structurally related—each having a seven-membered tropane ring with an N-methylated nitrogen bridge, and a proprionic acid chain substituted at R2 with an aromatic phenyl ring and R3 with a hydroxyl group OH-. The tropane ring and acid chain are connected at R3 and R1 via an oxygen atom.[20]

Receptor Binding

The three primary alkaloids in Datura are antimuscarinic anticholinergics, which means they competitively antagonize (block) the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Their effects on the parasympathetic nervous system lead to abnormal breathing and heart rate, among other symptoms. Additionally, atropine and scopolamine are able to cross the blood-brain barrier to affect the central nervous system as depressants.[3][23][24]

Safety and Toxicity

Many healthy people have died from ingesting Datura, usually as the result of respiratory paralysis or heart failure.[23] Sometimes a fatal reaction can take more than twelve hours to manifest.[25] Due to the high variability of alkaloid concentrations between plants (or even within the different parts of the same plant), it’s difficult to determine a universally “safe” dose. As little as 100 mg of dried seeds has been known to kill,[3] while others have taken substantially more than that and lived.

Datura poisoning is characterized by 10 key symptoms, or the “10 Ds”: dryness of mouth; dysphagia (difficulty swallowing); dilated pupils; diplopia (double vision); dry, hot skin; drunken gait (or ataxia); delirium (with hallucinations, amnesia, incoherence); delusions; dysuria (difficulty urinating); and death.[26]

The usual treatment for atropine or scopolamine overdose involves swallowing activated charcoal to delay absorption of the alkaloids, as well as injecting physostigmine intravenously. Physostigmine is effectively an antidote to Datura, crossing the blood-brain barrier and agonizing the affected muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Unfortunately, its activity is relatively short-lived and not suitable for people with heart problems.[23][27]

Effects

04

Since the active alkaloids are present throughout most Datura species, all parts of the plant can be used—the seeds, leaves, flowers, roots, and stems. However, due to their variable concentrations—even between materials from the same plant—it is difficult to provide any kind of “safe” dose range.[28] For more information on using Datura, see FAQ.

What to Expect

Effects can typically be felt within 30 minutes to an hour of taking Datura, but they may take up to four hours to fully manifest.[4] Peak effects can last for several days, but 12-24 hours is common.[20] There may also be some lingering “weirdness” affecting coordination, perception, and speech, for up to a week afterward.[29]

The effects during onset include dry mouth, pupil dilation, a feeling of electricity and energy changes, weightlessness, and a sense of being “pulled” about by gravity.[30][31] There’s also a gradual dissociation from consensus reality, which may or may not be frightening. It could even feel completely normal.[32]

This is especially true of Datura-induced hallucinations, which can appear perfectly normal regardless of how out of context they are. This could include inanimate talking objects and/or the unexpected appearance of absent friends and family. Indistinguishable from real people, these entities may just stand and stare at you without saying a word, or they might engage in lively conversation.[33][34] Most users don’t realize they’ve been talking to themselves until they look away for a second and the apparition disappears.[35][36][37][38]

Hallucinations with the senses of touch, taste, and smell are common and “phantom cigarettes” are practically a hallmark of the Datura experience. Strangely, even non-smokers have reported the phenomenon of seeing and feeling an imaginary lit cigarette in their hand, sometimes having rolled it themselves. In fact, these hallucinations can be so indistinguishable from reality that the sudden disappearance of one of these phantom cigarettes can prompt a frantic search on the floor for it.[33][39] You’re also likely to find yourself picking tiny insects from your clothes.

Other visual effects include an unrecognizable reflection, color differences, environmental drifting and distortion, snake-like patterns, and flashes in the peripheral vision.[4][20][29]

Some common physical effects include dryness of the mouth, eyes, and skin; increased heart rate and temperature; sensitivity to touch; blurred vision; dizziness; and nausea. Urination may become more or less frequent, even to the point of incontinence. Some people experience nothing but these physical symptoms.[2][4][20][29][30][33][40]

Agitation, paranoia, and fear are also common, along with depersonalization, amnesia, and increased suggestibility. Some users report “telepathy” and “teleportation,” perhaps as symptoms of memory loss.[2][4][20][30]

Precautions

Based on the potential side effects, it’s obvious that the Datura plant is not to be taken lightly. It is absolutely essential to have a sober sitter present when experimenting with Datura—not only to keep you safe from accidental injuries but also to monitor your body’s response to the plant.

A good sitter will periodically check that your heart rate remains between 50-180 beats per minute, and that your temperature is within safe limits(below 103 degrees Fahrenheit).[29] If not, they should be ready to drive you to hospital and explain what you took (an anticholinergic drug) to ensure you’re not given anesthetics, aspirins, or any other treatments with potentially fatal interactions..[25] Needless to say, driving yourself anywhere while on Datura would be extremely dangerous.[33]

It may be necessary for multiple sitters to watch you in shifts to cover the full duration of your trip.[23] It’s also important to eat and stay hydrated after experimenting with Datura. Plain, starchy meals with green vegetables are best.[29]

Another thing to keep in mind is setting. Being around large bodies of water is a major risk due to the overheating effect of Datura; many people have drowned after going for an innocent dip.[2][23] Being outside in bright sunshine can also be painful for the eyes, so sunglasses are recommended.[29]  Strenuous physical activity should be avoided, and public settings are inadvisable because of the risk to other people as well as the influx of chaotic stimuli. Some Datura users have been known to break into people’s homes and even become violent.[29][33]

Myths

05

“Smoking datura destroys the dangerous tropane alkaloids”

This commonly held assumption is highly suspect.[41][42] After all, the effectiveness of smoking remedies like Asthmador cigarettes relied on these alkaloids surviving heat.[14] The plant has also long been smoked or burned in traditional ritual contexts for its deliriant and hallucinogenic effects.[4]. It’s safe to assume, based on the historical context of smoking Datura, that burning it does not destroy the tropane alkaloids.

 

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Therapeutic Use

06

Atropine is widely used in mainstream medicine, particularly in ophthalmology to dilate pupils for examination.[43] As an anesthetic, it is listed on the World Health Organization’s Model List of Essential Medicines, “the most efficacious, safe and cost–effective medicines for priority conditions.”[44] As antispasmodics, both atropine and hyoscyamine have been used to treat peptic ulcers and diarrhea.[3][40]

The anticholinergic effects of atropine, as well as scopolamine and hyoscyamine, are particularly useful for treating organophosphate exposure, e.g. from pesticides.[45] They also represent a basis for research into Alzheimer’s disease and the development of treatments aimed at replacing depleted acetylcholine.[46][47][48]

Scopolamine has a long history of use in medicine and remains the first-line treatment for motion sickness, usually in the form of a transdermal patch.[27][49] It has been shown to reduce symptoms by 15% and is routinely used by NASA.[17][50]

Scopolamine also shows promise as a fast-acting antidepressant. Although it exhibits some transient side effects, it relieves symptoms of depression (both major and bipolar) within 1-3 days of treatment.[51][52][53]

Some evidence suggests that dried, crushed Datura stramonium is more effective than standard antibiotics against bacteria (both gram-positive like Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative like E. coli)—at least when combined with filtered cow urine and North Indian Rosewood.[54] Datura stramonium and Datura metel have also been shown to be anti-inflammatory,[55][56][57] an effect attributed to certain withanolides (natural steroids) common to the nightshade family.[58]

Various datura species may one day be used in cancer treatments too, since they’re apparently capable of inhibiting human breast, larynx and colon cancer cell growth by apoptosis.[59][60][61] Datura also shows promise for treating symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, rabies, neuralgia, alopecia, and pre-menstrual syndrome. It’s an effective mosquito repellant to boot.[3][4][24][29][62]

Personal Growth

07

However unpleasant or frightening at the time, a full-blown Datura trip is almost always described as mind-expanding.

One user went so far as to call it a major turning point—a valuable insight into the subjective relativity of reality.[30][31][63] Even afterward, there’s very little way of knowing what really happened, and for some users it becomes irrelevant; for them the content of the trip is the content of the mind, and this has implications for self-awareness and personal growth.

Another unique feature of the Datura experience is the perceived opportunity to speak with dead friends and relatives face-to-face, just as they were in life, potentially offering closure for many.[37] Visits and messages from spirit guides are also commonly reported; the guides typically impart instructions for how to live better. Encounters with plant spirits, in particular, have made people more acutely aware of their role in the web of existence.[32]

Legality

08

Datura is federally un-scheduled in the US but controlled in a number of states, including Connecticut, Kansas, Louisiana, Nevada, New Jersey, and Oklahoma.[64] Often these bans only apply to the manufacture and distribution of Datura for human consumption. But in Kansas, Datura stramonium is illegal for any purpose. Similarly, in New Jersey, wild specimens of the plant are routinely destroyed by the authorities.

In Australia, Datura and atropine are Schedule 2 substances. This places them in the lowest classification.[65]

In the UK, Datura should, technically, be covered by the Psychoactive Substances Act, but this is unlikely to be enforced.

Very few countries have legislation concerning Datura specifically and the plant is completely legal in Canada.[64]

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FAQ

09

What is Datura?

Datura is a genus of flowering plant that contains endogenous psychedelic compounds, including atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine/daturine.

Where does Datura grow?

Due to widespread cultivation, it is difficult to pinpoint the origins of Datura. However, it is known to thrive across the world in temperate and tropical conditions. It is also known as a hardy plant that can grow in suboptimal conditions, such as on roadsides or in landfills.

Can it be detected in a drug test?

Only specialist laboratory tests like gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) can reliably detect the tropane alkaloids, but they’re not routinely used for drug screening.

Can Datura cause psychological trauma?

While under the influence of datura, hallucinations and delusions are widely perceived to be real. It may take a week or more to fully recover from the experience. Datura is also thought to carry a greater long-term risk of psychosis than other hallucinogens, but the research is limited.[20]

Are there risks?

There are many health risks associated with datura, including the very real threat of death. The variability of alkaloid levels makes it extremely easy to overdose. People with existing heart conditions should be especially cautious. Pregnant women should also avoid datura, due to the potential impact of excessive acetylcholine levels on the fetus.

Some other risks include physical injury and legal issues. A safe, comfortable setting and a reliable sitter can help.

Is it legal to grow at home?

It’s usually legal to grow Datura at home. Just be aware of the high risk of poisoning to pets and small children. Sometimes just handling the plant is enough to cause toxic effects.[23]

What are the differences between datura species?

Potency and appearance (e.g. flower color) can vary between the species, but the effects are largely the same. Datura metel has the highest scopolamine content, and usually the highest percentage of alkaloids overall, but the difference isn’t hugely significant.

Unlike most species, the seeds and flowers of Datura wrightii and the flowers of Datura discolor are non-psychoactive.[4]

What is the safest way to take datura?

There are several ways to ingest Datura plants, including Datura Stramonium. The plants can be smoked, brewed into a tea, or converted into a skin ointment. Since all parts of the plant contains variable amounts of psychedelic compounds, some people have been known to chew the seeds as well.

Smoking Datura may be somewhat less dangerous than oral ingestion, but it’s by no means “safe.” All methods have been linked to bad trips, hospitalization, and death. However you choose to take it, the dried plant material should be finely ground to ensure an even distribution of the alkaloids. If an initially small dose is ineffective, a slightly higher dose can be taken a couple of weeks later, and so on until the desired effects are reached. Because of the high variability between and often within plants, this process should be repeated for each new batch even if it’s from the same plant.[20]

Despite any preparation you take, Datura is still a dangerous substance. There is no way to tell how much of the psychoactive alkaloids are in different parts of the plant, making the effects of ingestion highly unpredictable. Extreme caution and research should be exercised before ingesting Datura in any way.

Can I microdose datura?

Anecdotal reports suggest that microdosing Datura helps to induce sleep and lucid dreaming.[66][67][68] However, regular dosing—even at a fraction of the hallucinogenic threshold—could lead to a gradual build up of dangerous toxicity over time.

Does it produce tolerance?

Yes. It takes roughly two weeks to return to baseline sensitivity, and there’s a cross-tolerance effect with other deliriants, including diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and myristicin (from nutmeg).[20]

Can I mix it with other drugs?

Datura is sometimes combined with other drugs, including cannabis, but for safety reasons this isn’t recommended. MAOIs, stimulants, sedatives, antidepressants, antihistamines, and other medications are all contraindicated. Aspirins can be especially problematic.[29]

It’s a good idea to abstain from all other substances for at least a couple of weeks before and after taking Datura.

Footnotes

10

[1] Schultes, R. E., Hofmann, A., Rätsch, C. (2001). Plants of the Gods: Their Sacred, Healing, and Hallucinogenic Powers. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.

[2] Davis, W. (2000). Passage of Darkness: The Ethnobiology of the Haitian Zombie. Chapel Hill, NC: UNC Press.

[3] Julyan, M. (2014). Datura Stramonium L. – Narcotic, Anodyne or Poison? International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(2), 177-185.

[4] Rätsch, C. (2005). The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications. Rochester, VT: Park Street Press.

[5] De Nebesky-Wojkowitz, R. (1996). Oracles and Demons of Tibet: The Cult and Iconography of the Tibetan Protective Deities. Kathmandu, Nepal: Book Faith India.

[6] Parker, R. C., “Lux”. (2008). Psychoactive Plants in Tantric Buddhism: Cannabis and Datura Use in Indo-Tibetan Esoteric Buddhism. Erowid Extracts, 14, 6-11.

[7] Siklós, B. (1993). Datura Rituals in the Vajramahabhairava-Tantra. Curare, 16, 71-76.

[8] Fremantle, F. (1971). A Critical Study of the Guhyasamaja Tantra (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of London, UK.

[9] Davidson, R. M. (2002). Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. New York: Columbia University Press.

[10] Siegel, R. K. (2005). Intoxication: The Universal Pursuit of Mind-Altering Substances. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co

[11] Stafford, P. (1992). Psychedelics Encyclopedia. Berkeley, CA: Ronin Publishing.

[12] McIntosh, A. (1985). Psychedelic Shamanism: Old World to New Age. The Christian Parapsychologist, 6(4), 123-133.

[13] Jonker, J. (2015, Sep 10). Datura spp.(Jimsonweed, Downy Thornapple, Devil’s Trumpet, and Angel’s Trumpet). Retrieved from http://poisonousplants.ansci.cornell.edu/jimsonweed/jimsonweed.html#story.

[14] Jackson, M. (2010). “Divine Stramonium”: The Rise and Fall of Smoking for Asthma. Medical History, 54(2), 171-194.

[15] Leavitt, J. W. (1980). Birthing and Anesthesia: The Debate over Twilight Sleep. Signs, 6(1), 147-164.

[16] Bimmerle, G. (1993, Sep 22). “Truth” Drugs in Interrogation. Retrieved from
https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol5no2/html/v05i2a09p_0001.htm.

[17] Tatera, K. (2015, Dec 23). Scopolamine: Is This Mind-Control Drug the “Most Dangerous” in the World? Retrieved from http://thescienceexplorer.com/brain-and-body/scopolamine-mind-control-drug-most-dangerous-world.

[18] Saner, E. (2015, Sep 2). ‘Devil’s Breath’ aka scopolamine: can it really zombify you? Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/society/shortcuts/2015/sep/02/devils-breath-aka-scopolamine-can-it-really-zombify-you.

[19] Castaneda, C. (1968). The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge. Oakland, CA: University of California Press.

[20] PsychonautWiki. Datura. Retrieved from https://psychonautwiki.org/wiki/Datura.

[21] PlantUse. (2014, Nov 27). Datura stramonium (PROTA). Retrieved from http://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Datura_stramonium_(PROTA).

[22] VICE. (2012, May 11). World’s Scariest Drug (Documentary Exclusive) [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ToQ8PWYnu04.

[23] Arnett, A. M. (1995). Jimson Weed (Datura stramonium) Poisoning. Clinical Toxicology Review, 18(3), 1-6.

[24] Soni, P., Siddiqui, A. A., Dwivedi, J., Soni, V. (2012). Pharmacological properties of Datura stramonium L. as a potential medicinal tree: An overview. Asian Pacific Journal of
Tropical Biomedicine, 2(12), 1002-1008.

[25] Adams, J. D., Jr., Garcia, C. (2005). Spirit, Mind and Body in Chumash Healing. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2(4), 459-463.

[26] Kanchan, T., Atreya, A. (2016). Datura: The Roadside Poison, 27(3), 442-443.

[27] Bliss, M. (2001). DATURA Plant Poisoning. Clinical Toxicology Review, 23(6).

[28] Erowid. (2016, Sep 15). Datura / Solanaceae Dosage. Retrieved from https://erowid.org/plants/datura/datura_dose.shtml.

[29] AA, Erowid. (1998). Datura FAQ. Retrieved from https://erowid.org/plants/datura/datura_faq.shtml.

[30] daturahead. (2002, Apr 7). Extensive Datura Overview: An Experience with Datura (ID 11630). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=11630.

[31] Un4GiV3N. (2004, Jul 18). Two Lives: An Experience with Datura (ID 34121). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=34121.

[32] Wyrd. (2004, Nov 13). A Rebirth: An Experience with Datura (ID 16973). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=16973.

[33] Erowid. (2007, Feb 8). Datura: Basics. Retrieved from https://erowid.org/plants/datura/datura_basics.shtml.

[34] Keeler, M. H., Kane, F. J., Jr. (1967). The Use of Hyoscyamine as a Hallucinogen and Intoxicant. American Journal of Psychiatry, 124, 852-854.

[35] Datura. (2001, Jul 4). My Best Experience EVER!!!!!!: An Experience with Datura (ID 7842). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=7842.

[36] Barton. (2010, May 5). Not Quite What I Had Expected: An Experience with Datura (seeds) (ID 84372). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=84372.

[37] peaceful_tripper05. (2004, Aug 8). Mystical Night of Glowing Ghosts and Dreams: An Experience with Datura (ID 35752). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=35752.

[38] Black Bird. (2009, Mar 4). They Weren’t There: An Experience with Datura (ID 54919). Retrieved from https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=54919.

[39] Erowid. (2008, Nov 27). Tropane Alkaloids and Phantom Smoking: An unusual reported effect of Datura, Brugmansia, and Belladonna. Retrieved from https://erowid.org/plants/datura/datura_info10.shtml.

[40] Weil, A. T. (1981). The Marriage of the Sun and the Moon: Dispatches from the Frontiers of Consciousness. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

[41] Datura is to be smoked, not eaten! [Forum thread]. Retrieved from https://www.reddit.com/r/2cb/comments/51is60/microdosing/.

[42] Smoking datura flowers [Forum thread]. Retrived from https://www.shroomery.org/forums/showflat.php/Number/2877060.

[43] Drugs.com. (2017, May 2). Atropine drops. Retrieved from https://www.drugs.com/cdi/atropine-drops.html.

[44] World Health Organization. (2015) 19th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines.

[45] Bania, T. C., Chu, J., Bailes, D., O’Neill, M. (2004). Jimson weed extract as a
protective agent in severe organophosphate toxicity. Academic Emergency Medicine, 11(4), 335-8.

[46] Zimmerberg, B. (2000). Acetylcholine and Alzheimer’s Disease. Retrieved from https://web.williams.edu/imput/synapse/pages/IA5.html.

[47] PsyWeb.com. (2015, Dec 2). Alzheimer’s, Memory, And Acetylcholine. Retrieved from http://www.psyweb.com/Documents/00000003.jsp.

[48] Block, W. (2000, Oct). Galantamine, the Odyssey’s Nootropic Phytonutrient, Revives Memory and Helps… Fight Alzheimer’s Disease. Retrieved from http://www.life-enhancement.com/magazine/article/488-fight-alzheimers-disease.

[49] Brainard, A., Gresham, C. (2014). Prevention and Treatment of Motion Sickness. American Family Physician, 90(1), 41-46.

[50] NASA. (2012, Oct 12). NASA Signs Agreement to Develop Nasal Spray for Motion Sickness. Retrieved from https://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2012/oct/HQ_12-361_NASA_Motion_Sickness_Nasal_Spray.html.

[51] Jaffe, R. J., Novakovic, V., Peselow, E. D. (2013). Scopolamine as an antidepressant: a systematic review. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 36(1), 24-6.

[52] Armstrong, C. (2010, May 4). Rapid Antidepressant Action of Common Medication Confirmed by Repeat Trial. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/news/science-news/2010/rapid-antidepressant-action-of-common-medication-confirmed-by-repeat-trial.shtml.

[53] Furey, M. L., Drevets, W. C. (2006). Antidepressant Efficacy of the Antimuscarinic Drug Scopolamine: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(10), 1121-1129.

[54] Yadav, H. et al. (2008). Antimicrobial property of a Herbal Preparation Containing Dalbergia sissoo and Datura stramonium with Cow Urine Against Pathogenic Bacteria. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, 21(4), 1017-24.

[55] Sonika, G., Manubala, R., Deepak, J. (2010). Comparative Studies on Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Coriandrum Sativum, Datura Stramonium and Azadirachta Indica. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences, 1(1), 151-4.

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[57] Khalili, M., Vaez-Mahdavi, M-R. (2004). Anti-inflammatory effect of alcoholic Datura stramonium seed extract in acute inflammation induced by formalin injection in hind paws of male NMRI rats. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 3(1), 69.

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[67] Datura seeds to upregulate aChR and 5-HT? [Forum thread]. Retrieved from http://www.longecity.org/forum/topic/46171-datura-seeds-to-upregulate-achr-and-5-ht/.

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  1. You missed a couple things… you didn’t even specify that it’s also known as the angel’s trumpet. Not all of its species flowers point to hell…. also, I’m guessing you haven’t heard of the being who lives in one of it’s dimensions who the native Americans referred to as ‘Momoy’.

  2. I tried Datura Stramonium a couple of times along many years. Usually i burned it on a incense charcoal with resins and St. Johns Wort. It was an interesting experience. I felt i was just my very own self all the time, fears disappeared.
    As i have breath it instead of smoking it, it was easy to feel how it started to hit in, so i stopped when i felt the alkaloids were taking effect.
    The last time was last year, and this time i smoked six seeds along with my weed which i use to smoke before i sleep.
    This time i was confronted with my deepest fear, death. Not that i was dying, but i went into a dialogue with my three entities. The earthbound, the spiritual and The Self. My body was shaking, spasms, The dialogue was great. It made me understand more about the meaning of living. I could understand the fear of death better.
    As for the people with asthma, as most of the asthma is bound to birth trauma, and asthma seems to be a replica of the moment you were choking during the mothers labour. It is psychosomatic asthma, a trauma. Datura in small doses releases you from the negative emotions.
    Same as a small doses (1/4) of magic mushrooms can release you from a depression.

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